Best Extended Auto Warranty Companies
Sometimes called an “aftermarket car warranty” or “vehicle service contract,” an extended auto warranty kicks in after your initial warranty has expired and is intended to offset the costs of expensive repairs after your vehicle’s standard manufacturer’s warranty expires.
You can buy an extended auto warranty at any time, even after your original manufacturer’s warranty has expired, either through your car’s original equipment manufacturer (OEM), like BMW or Ford, or through a third-party warranty provider, like Endurance Auto or Car Shield.
The best extended auto warranties offer multiple protection plans with low deductibles, 24/7 roadside assistance, complimentary towing, plus rental car, meal and lodging reimbursement if your car leaves you stranded far from home.
Compare Reviews for Top Extended Auto Warranty Companies
|Endurance Auto Warranty|
Read 3157 Reviews
A third-party auto warranty company that provides more affordable options than those bought through auto dealers. They offer 4 different plans directly to consumers, so you don’t have to deal with a broker.
Read 2205 Reviews
A service contract broker that compiles competing extended auto warranty plans from different companies for you. Once you sign up, a specialist will contact you with the best offers they found fitting your criteria.
|Protect My Car|
Read 2254 Reviews
Select from 3 plan options with deductibles as low as $100. Covers vehicles for up to 5 years or 125,000 miles. Down payments vary. Includes roadside assistance, 36– 60-month payment terms and a 30-day money-back guarantee.
|Complete Car Warranty|
Read 5 Reviews
Get an extended auto warranty for up to 60 percent less than you would pay at a dealership. Get unlimited repair claims and have work done by your choice of mechanic or dealer.
Read 799 Reviews
Service contract broker with many plans, including high-mileage and specialty coverage. Includes 30-day guarantee and roadside assistance. Most contracts are transferable.
|Delta Auto Protect|
Read 1360 Reviews
Offers 3 protection plans backed by a top-rated AM Best insurance company with max warranties of up to 8 years. Includes 24/7 roadside assistance and a 30-day guarantee. Zero deductible plans available. Down payments vary.
|Concord Auto Protect|
Read 168 Reviews
Gives consumers a choice of 3 plan options—premium, advanced and powertrain—with deductibles as low as $100. Contract length depends on vehicle, but are typically 3–5 years. Financing plans are available. Down payments vary.
|Omega Auto Care|
Read 486 Reviews
Offers 5 plans ranging from new exclusionary to basic powertrain, all with roadside assistance, rental car reimbursement and maintenance benefits. Down payments as low as $50. Standard warranties up to 5 years.
|America Auto Care|
Read 362 Reviews
Customizable plans based on vehicle type and mileage. No down payment required. Deductibles as low as $50. Plans include rental car reimbursement and roadside assistance.
|American Auto Shield||Read 122 Reviews|
Choose from 6 plans, including 3 powertrain plans for high-mileage vehicles and customizable options. Roadside assistance and rental car coverage included. Plans sold through dealerships. Max lengths and down payments vary.
Read 142 Reviews
Personalized coverage options for new and used cars. Exclusionary coverage for vehicles as high as 15,000 miles and stated component coverage for vehicles as high as 200,000. Available at dealerships.
|Premier Auto Protect|
Read 7 Reviews
Choose from three tiers of vehicle service plans that let you choose which repair provider you use and come with free roadside assistance. Refer friends for 10 percent cash back on your premium. All VSPs are transferrable.
Read 120 Reviews
Offers customized coverage backed by A-rated insurance company for vehicles up to 10 years or 100,000 miles. Roadside assistance included. No wear and tear exclusion. Deductibles from $0–$100 with disappearing deductible option.
|AA Auto Protection|
Read 610 Reviews
Choose from 5 plans that include full coverage, premium, stated component and powertrain options with deductibles as low as $100. Includes roadside assistance. No down payment is required. Max warranty length varies.
Read 338 Reviews
Get a customized warranty plan based on coverage level and vehicle type, year and mileage. No down payment required. Deductibles as low as $50. Plans may include rental car reimbursement and roadside assistance.
What is included in an extended car warranty?
If your air conditioner breaks down or you have an engine or transmission failure your extended warranty will probably cover it.
Ask your provider if there are any rules against performing maintenance work yourself. Keep track of all maintenance records and receipts.
Not all extended auto warranties cover the vehicle from bumper to bumper, so it’s important to understand what is and is not covered by different companies when buying an extended auto warranty. Brakes, cooling systems and electronic components are just a few examples of services that may or may not be covered. Be sure to read the fine print and choose a plan with the coverage you actually need.
Most warranties do not cover damage to your car’s interior, paint or other issues resulting from normal wear and tear. Wear-and-tear plans cover the difference, often including tires. These auto protection plans may be especially appealing to those leasing a vehicle because they’ll be responsible for the cost of these repairs when the lease ends. Read the terms carefully and understand precisely what will be covered.
Part of any vehicle service contract agreement is understanding that the vehicle owner will perform routine maintenance recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. Failing to do so could void your contract. Typical maintenance responsibilities required by most vehicle service contracts include:
- Oil changes: A single delayed oil change is unlikely to void a warranty, but repeated misses could leave a car owner facing a full bill on a major system repair.
- Changing filters: Bad filters can cause build-up that impacts the engine, transmission, intake and other important systems. It is important to change filters regularly.
- System checks and service schedule: Regular testing and visual inspections can catch problems before they become major hazards. They are typically included in the recommended maintenance schedule.
- Using recommended gasoline types: Every vehicle requires a certain octane rating to help its engine get its best life and performance. Using the wrong or lower octane rating than is specified can cause engine damage and a voided warranty.
Often, vehicle service contracts or extended auto warranties purchased separately from the manufacturer's warranty cannot be used for 30 days or 1,000 miles, whichever comes later, after they are purchased. This policy prevents people from buying a vehicle service contract only after a problem develops.
Types of car warranties
Bumper-to-bumper extended warranty
Covers components like air conditioning, audio systems, vehicle sensors, fuel systems and major electrical components. Most policies exclude regular maintenance like fluid top-offs and oil changes, but a few brands have separate free-maintenance provisions. Often called an exclusionary warranty or new-vehicle warranty, a bumper-to-bumper policy, bumper-to-bumper or new-vehicle warranties usually expire faster than powertrain warranties.
Typically covers the engine and transmission, along with any other moving parts that lead to the wheels, like the driveshaft and constant velocity joints. Some automakers also bundle seatbelts and airbags into their powertrain warranties. With a few exceptions, powertrain warranties don't cover regular maintenance like engine tune-ups and tire rotations.
Covers transmission, driveshaft, axles, and wheels, but does not cover the engine. A drivetrain warranty will usually last for longer than a powertain warranty.
Car maintenance warranty
Optional extended service or coverage for air filters, oil changes, tune-ups and similar items. Make sure to read all the details if you are purchasing this package. Sometimes included with new car purchases, maintenance packages are usually available from both dealerships and as additions to a vehicle service contract.
Coverage for damage to upholstery, interior, paint coverage and cleaning or other issues resulting from normal use. These auto protection plans may be especially appealing to those leasing a vehicle because they’ll be responsible for the cost of these repairs when the lease ends.
Repair or adjust emission controls for at least two years or 24,000 miles if the car fails an emissions test. Design and defect warranties cover at least two years or 24,000 miles if emission controls fail independently of a test. Major components like catalytic converters and engine control modules are covered for performance and defects for eight years or 80,000 miles. On some items, California residents are eligible for additional coverage.
Factory accessories warranty
Covers everything from a high-end audio system to an engine modification from a manufacturer's performance wing. Most automakers cover accessories for one to three years or the remainder of the bumper-to-bumper warranty, whichever is shorter. Be sure to check out all the specifics; modifying the accessories after they've been installed can void your coverage.
How much does an extended car warranty cost?
In total, an extended auto warranty costs about $1,800–$4,000. Depending on the level of coverage, monthly payments can range from $80 to several hundred dollars. Some plans have $0 deductibles, but those come with higher premiums. Prices vary based on your vehicle’s make, model, condition and location.
Usually, you’ll pay for extended auto warranties when you’re purchasing your new or new-to-you vehicle. You can pay up front or make payments in monthly installments.
|Plan||Supreme package*||Titanium package*||Supreme package*|
|Coverage up to||4 years/95,000 miles||6 years/125,000 miles||5 years/100,000 miles|
|Monthly payments||$100/24 months||$196/18 months||$156/30 months|
|Plan||Coverage up to||Deposit||Monthly payments||Deductible|
|Supreme package*||4 years/95,000 miles||$130||$100/24 months||$100|
|Titanium package*||6 years/125,000 miles||$0||$196/18 months||$100|
|Supreme package*||5 years/100,000 miles||$249||$156/30 months||$100|
*Quotes for extended auto warranties are based on a 2015 4-door sedan with 40,000 miles.
Factors that impact the cost of your extended auto warranty
- Level of coverage: While all new vehicles and most used vehicles come with some type of warranty, many dealerships offer premium coverage options that include more systems. Extended auto warranty providers often offer different auto protection plans depending on which systems a customer wants protected.
- One-time and recurring fees: Ask about any recurring charges in addition to the upfront fee or monthly premium. It can be difficult to get out of these types of contracts. If you're rolling your extended auto warranty into your auto loan, you're going to pay interest on the policy itself.
- Additional charges or deductibles: Some car warranties cover everything from chips in a windshield to door dents, but there may be service fees or deductibles for every repair.
- Maximum payout amount: Most extended auto warranties have a maximum payout; many will restrict the maximum payout to not exceed the total cash value of the car. Once you're quoted a price for your policy, consider if the cost is reasonable in relation to the limits of the liability terms of your auto protection plan.
How much is an extended warranty on a used car?
Typically auto warranties for used cars cost $350–$700 per year. Not all providers offer auto warranties for used cars, and not everyone qualifies for those who do. If your car is over 10 years old or has more than 100,000 miles, you may not qualify for coverage at all.
Best extended warranties for used cars
Endurance Auto Warranty, CarChex and Protect My Car all offer extended auto warranty packages for high-mileage cars that include 24/7 roadside assistance. Their extended auto warranties are also transferable to a new owner, which might increase the value of your car. Alternatively, you could receive a prorated refund if you sell your car before the warranty expires.
A used car extended warranty usually pays for itself with the first major repair. When buying a used car warranty, consider opting for mechanical breakdown insurance or an additional maintenance or wear-and-tear plan, which can help keep your vehicle on the road even longer, even if it has over a hundred thousand miles.
Extended car warranty questions
What is a car warranty?
A car warranty is a contract between you and your car’s dealership or manufacturer to make repairs within a certain period of time or mileage, often 3 years or 60,000 miles. It’s a guarantee that your car will be reliable and if it's not, it will be fixed at no cost.
Auto warranties typically do not cover theft, damage caused by natural disasters, vandalism, routine maintenance or normal wear and tear. You can opt for a full-coverage plan or choose a plan that only covers the major systems on your vehicle.
How do car warranties work?
Repair insurance for cars is like health insurance for people in some ways. Extended auto warranty providers usually have a network of mechanics and repair shops that car owners can use. Depending on the terms of your service contract, you may have to pay for repairs then wait for reimbursement from the service company. If you aren't sure how long it will take to be reimbursed for your expenses, talk to your extended warranty provider
How are auto warranty claims handled?
Repair insurance for cars is like health insurance for people in some ways. Extended auto warranty providers usually have a network of mechanics and repair shops that car owners can use. Depending on the terms of your service contract, you may have to pay for repairs then wait for reimbursement from the service company. If you aren't sure how long it will take to be reimbursed for your expenses, talk to your extended warranty provider.
Most extended auto warranties cover repairs only through authorized service providers, and any repairs outside the network may not be covered or may only be covered up to a specific dollar amount. Be sure to look at the available network of garages before settling on a particular warranty company. Preferably your repairs are done at the dealership or by an ASE (Automotive Service Excellence) certified technician.
The FTC offers advice on their website for consumers who need to file a claim with their service contract provider. They recommend asking if you need prior authorization for any repair work or towing services before choosing an auto repair shop.
What is a vehicle service contract?
Vehicle service contracts, also known as “extended car warranties,” help offset the costs of expensive repairs after your vehicle’s standard manufacturer’s warranty has expired. They will typically cover costs of repairs, including labor, parts and taxes, but only if all their terms are met.
How long is a car warranty effective?
A manufacturer’s car warranty usually lasts for at least three years or 60,000 miles, whichever comes first. An extended auto warranty provides additional coverage, typically for about five years, after your initial warranty has lapsed.
Should I buy an extended warranty on a new car?
If you’re planning to keep your car for longer than the manufacturer’s warranty covers, you should consider an extended auto warranty to save money on repairs as your vehicle ages. Extended auto warranties are also a good idea if you’re getting ready to sell your vehicle. Most auto protection plans are transferable to a new owner, which can help you sell your vehicle faster.
What’s the difference between bumper-to-bumper vs. powertrain warranties?
A powertrain warranty covers everything that keeps your vehicle driving, from the engine to the transmission to the parts that allow power to travel from the engine to the wheels. A bumper-to-bumper warranty is more comprehensive and includes additional coverage for electronic systems, suspension and more.
Are extended car warranties worth it?
The peace of mind that comes with additional coverage of an extended car warranty could be enough to make it worth it for you.
- Special coverage like car rental benefits
- Covers a wide range of vehicle parts and systems
- No need to pay for repairs out of pocket
- Large deductibles
- Does not cover pre-existing conditions
- Some states have additional exclusions that could affect your coverage
Think about the amount of money you've spent on out-of-warranty repairs on vehicles you've owned in the past, then compare that to the total price of an extended car warranty. If you're worried you won't have cash set aside to pay for repairs out of pocket, an extended warranty could help offset those costs.
In some cases, purchasing an extended auto warranty or vehicle service contract before the manufacturer’s warranty expires comes with added benefits. For example, if any part of your vehicle is repaired under the manufacturer’s warranty (and the repair is also covered by your extended warranty), some providers will reimburse you for a portion of the manufacturer’s deductible.
Expert reviews for extended auto warranties
Provides extended auto warranties people need to offset costs of major repairs. All packages include 24-hour roadside assistance, vast network of ASE-licensed mechanics and a 30-day money-back guarantee.
Choose from multiple tiers of coverage, all of which come with a price match guarantee. The company is a direct provider of extended warranty coverage, meaning customers will purchase the policy from the same company that manages claims.
Offers multiple customizable tiers of extended auto coverage. All packages include 24/7 roadside assistance, towing and rental car reimbursement. Warranties are transferable or refundable.
Provides coverage for repairs if your car breaks down within a couple of years of purchase.
Three levels of coverage available: Driveline, Select and Supreme. Most models of cars are accepted. Offers a 30-day money-back guarantee if you change your mind.
Offers a unique variety of customizable plans with nationwide service, 24/7 roadside assistance and easy payment plans. Secure a high level of coverage through this company’s online portal.
Customized service plans are specifically tailored to meet your needs and budget. Consumers can apply for a free quote online.
This company is a contract provider, or broker, meaning they connect you with a plan administrator who will handle your claim in case of needed repairs. Offers a variety of plan options according to the make, model, year and mileage of your vehicle.
Extended coverage for cars, motorcycles, ATVs, dirt bikes and ride-share vehicles. All plans are fully-insured and financially secure. Claims are resolved quickly and fairly.
Multiple new and used vehicle service contracts for cars of any age and mileage. Provides same-day claims payment and no exclusion for wear and tear.
This vehicle service plan provider has three coverage options that will protect your vehicle when it needs service work. You can have your vehicle repaired at any ASE-certified facility in the U.S.
- Free roadside assistance: Every Premier VSP includes free roadside assistance. You just call a tow company and Premier Auto Protect will reimburse the expense.
- Easy payment to repair facilities: When you need a repair, simply take your vehicle to the repair facility of your choice. They’ll contact Premier Auto Protect, who will pay for the service over the phone with their company credit card. You don’t need to worry about filling out paperwork, paying upfront or filing a claim.
- Transferrable contract: You can easily transfer your VSP to the next owner of your vehicle. You’ll just need to provide Premier Auto Protect with documentation of the transfer, and they’ll take care of the rest.
- Referral policy: Premier Auto Protect’s referral policy gives you 10 percent back on your premium for every customer you refer. That means if you refer 10 customers, your own policy will be free.
This company offers vehicle service contracts that can save you money on costly car repairs. Choose from three coverage plans for your vehicle: Prime, Modern and Foundation. Every plan automatically includes choice of repair facility, 24/7 roadside assistance, rental car, flexible payment terms and courtesy towing.
- Prime coverage: Covers gasoline/diesel engine, transmission, 4x4/AWD, technology, drive axle, electrical, cooling, brakes, differential assembly, steering, super/turbo charger, fuel, heater, air conditioning, front/rear suspension and ABS-brakes.
- Modern coverage: Covers gasoline/diesel engine, transmission, 4x4/AWD, drive axle, electrical, cooling, brakes, differential assembly and brakes.
- Foundation coverage: Covers gasoline/diesel engine, transmission, 4x4/AWD, drive axle, electrical, cooling, brakes and differential assembly.
- 30-day money back guarantee: All vehicle service contracts come with a 30-day money back guarantee, so you can sign up risk-free.
- Fast claims process: Submit claims 24/7 and enjoy fast processing.
Provides exclusionary coverage and stated component coverage for new and used vehicles. Vehicle service contracts are transferable to a new owner if you sell your car, which may increase your car’s overall value.
Offers multiple plans so you can choose the policy that best fits your needs. All plans include free roadside assistance and a 30-day money-back guarantee. Get repairs at any ASE-certified facility. Payment plans available.
Get an extended auto warranty for unlimited repair claims that are accepted by all dealerships and mechanics in the U.S.
Consumers can get quotes online directly, with coverage effective immediately. This vehicle service contract covers auto repairs and includes roadside assistance like towing and tire replacement.
Offers 6 different extended warranty plans. Handles all claims in-house. All plans come with roadside assistance, car rental reimbursement, trip interruption protection and unlimited number of claims.
Choose from regular, premium or supreme plans, depending on their coverage needs and budget. Includes roadside assistance, rental car and travel expense reimbursement. Set your deductible from $0–$500.
Offers 5 extended warranty packages, all with coverage for fluids, rental car, towing and travel expenses, plus financing and transfer options. Get repairs done at over 6,000 authorized service centers in the United States and Canada.
Provides maintenance protection at affordable prices for new or pre-owned cars, SUVs and trucks nationwide. A wide variety of plans can accommodate the needs of most vehicle owners. Available only through dealerships.
As a company that truly prioritizes customer service, Direct Buy offers one of the best response times in the industry with an average claim response time of only 2.5 hours.
Select Auto Warranty is a discount vehicle service contract (VSC) provider.
Offers plans with a range of choices with low rates and down payments. No credit check is required, and qualification is instant.
Offers different ranges of coverage to accommodate your needs and protect your vehicle against high-cost repairs.
Offers four tiers of extended auto coverage that lessen the cost of repairs associated with mechanical breakdowns, damage to vehicle appearance and theft. Sold through most dealerships and honored by most repair facilities in the United States and Canada.
Compare Reviews for Top Extended Auto Warranty Companies
|Infinite Auto Protection||Read 12 Reviews|
Offers 3 tiers of vehicle service contracts that all include 24/7 roadside assistance, rental car, flexible payment options and courtesy towing. Use any repair facility nationwide. 30-day money back guarantee.
Read 713 Reviews
Choose from 9 warranties with elite and high-mileage plans. Includes 24/7 roadside assistance, rental car coverage and choice of repair facility. Deductibles as low as $0. Down payments vary.
|Portfolio Protection Vehicles & Services||Read 30 Reviews|
Offers exclusionary or powertrain warranties for new and premium vehicles, or high-tech or powertrain for used vehicles. Towing and rental car coverage included. Available through dealerships. Length and payments vary.
|Maxcare Auto Warranty|
Read 95 Reviews
Offers comprehensive plans customized for your vehicle. Emergency roadside assistance, rental reimbursement and nationwide coverage included. Warranties available on vehicles up to 150,000 miles. Deductibles from $0–$250.
|First Extended Service Corporation|
Read 78 Reviews
Now a part of Assurant, this company offers vehicle protection plans for automobiles, RVs, boats and motorcycles. Pay for claims for authorized repairs directly through your repair facility to save time and cut down on paperwork.
|Fidelity Warranty Services|
Read 175 Reviews
Find 5 protection plan levels ranging from Powertrain to Platinum. Purchase warranties up to 120,000 miles. Deductibles from $0–$250. Rental car, towing, fluids and travel coverage included. Financing options available.
|Diamond Warranty Corp|
Read 61 Reviews
Choose from 6 protection from 3 months/unlimited miles up to 6 years/100,000 miles. All plans include 24/7 roadside assistance. Top-tier plans cover rental cars and trip interruption. Purchase at dealerships.
|Penn Warranty Corporation|
Read 39 Reviews
Choose from 5 protection plans, starting at 6 months/7,500 miles. Deductibles for all plans are $100. Includes rental coverage and choice of repair shop. Prices vary by dealership.
|Phoenix Extended Care (formerly Wynn's Extended Care, Inc.)|
Read 86 Reviews
Offers 3 programs with 5 levels of vehicle service protection. Options for new, used and high-mileage vehicles. 24/7 roadside assistance included. Deductibles from $0–$200. Available through dealerships. Costs vary by vehicle.
|Zurich Auto Warranty|
Read 21 Reviews
Available exclusively at authorized car dealerships, four customizable vehicle service contracts cover unexpected expenses for new and used vehicles. Prices vary by location.
|GM Warranty||Read 50 Reviews|
A selection of warranties with mileage limits and costs based on specific factors, including your GM vehicle's make, model and year. Substitute transportation coverage included. Interest-free 12– 18-month payment plan.
Read 25 Reviews
Choose from 4 protection plans that cover vehicles up to 10 years and 120,000 miles. Roadside assistance, rental car coverage and towing included. Also covers wear and tear up to 50,000 miles. Deductibles from $0–$100.
Read 154 Reviews
Provides 4 coverage options from 12–48 months or 12,000–48,000 miles. All plans include engine group, transmission and brakes. Includes roadside assistance and coverage for rental car expenses. Standard deductibles are $100.
|American Guardian Warranty Services, Inc|
Read 94 Reviews
Select from 3 plans with stated component or exclusionary coverage options. Roadside assistance, rental car reimbursement and trip interruption included. Deductibles range from $0–$200. Available through dealerships.
|Preferred Warranties Inc.|
Read 29 Reviews
Offers 7 plans including high-mileage and budget options. Roadside assistance and rental car coverage included with most. Includes choice of repair shop. Available only through dealerships. Deductibles and down payments vary.
Read 25 Reviews
Offers multiple protection plans up to 5 years. Includes roadside assistance and rental coverage. Various down payments and no-fee payment plans. Deductibles as low as $100.
|InterContinental Warranty Company|
Read 46 Reviews
Multiple plans for vehicles up to 150,000 miles with optional deductibles and nationwide protection. Towing, rental cars, roadside assistance and travel expenses also covered. Plan prices vary by vehicle.
|Pay My Repairs|
Read 25 Reviews
Choose from multiple protection plans, including full coverage, stated component and powertrain options. Max coverage is up to 160,000 miles. Roadside assistance and rental benefits included with most. Payment plans available.
|Select Auto Warranty||Read Reviews|
Provides auto protection plans that offer nationwide coverage. Plans vary by state and specifics such as the make, model, year and mileage of the vehicle.
|US Warranty Corp of Florida|
Read 12 Reviews
Has a variety of different vehicle service contract options available through over 800 dealerships to cover used and new cars. Also offers maintenance plans. Protection terms and pricing vary by dealership.
|ASAP Auto Warranty|
Read 549 Reviews
|Out of Business|
American Standard Auto Protection (ASAP) offers three coverage plans that include out-of-gas rescue, locksmith services and 24-hour roadside assistance. ASAP is a direct contract seller and plans last between one and 10 years.
|Auto Service Agency|
Read 91 Reviews
|Out of Business|
Auto Service Agency works with consumers to create a personalized service contract for their vehicle. The company offers four customizable plans including New Car, Comprehensive, Power Train and Power Train Plus.
|Direct Buy Auto Warranty||Read 584 Reviews||Out of Business|
Direct Buy Auto Warranty opened in 2009, and it is headquartered in Iselin, New Jersey. The company sells service contracts for consumers who want protection from expensive auto repairs.
|Mid-Atlantic Warranty Corporation|
Read 16 Reviews
|Out of Business|
Mid-Atlantic Warranty Corporation, headquartered in Wilmington, Delaware, offers auto warranties to consumers in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Virginia. It offers both comprehensive and powertrain options.
Information in this guide is general in nature and is intended for informational purposes only; it is not legal, health, investment or tax advice. ConsumerAffairs.com makes no representation as to the accuracy of the information provided and assumes no liability for any damages or loss arising from its use.