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How much do solar panels cost?

Profile picture of Kathryn Parkman
by Kathryn Parkman ConsumerAffairs Research Team
solar panels on roof of home

Solar panels generate “free” electricity, but there are still costs associated with installing them. Prices vary based on a few key factors: efficiency, capacity and your location.

After solar tax credits, the cost for a solar panel system on an average-sized house in the U.S. ranges from $11,144 to $14,696, according to EnergySage. If you need a few panels for a small DIY project, expect to pay around $200 to $250 per panel (around $1 per watt).

How much does it cost to install solar panels?

The average cost to install solar panels in the United States is about $12,000 after federal tax incentives. On the low end, you can install a smaller system for around $5,000, while a high-priced Tier 1 solar panel system can cost $40,000 or more.

There are additional costs that go into an installation project beyond the price of panels. In fact, only about a quarter of the installation costs are actually for the panels. Labor costs, operational costs and additional equipment, such as inverters, make up the rest of the price.

Solar energy companies install the solar panels, provide maintenance and offer warranties on both the panels and the work. These additional services aren’t free, but they are often worth it. A few additional factors affect the price of solar panel installation.

Federal and state incentives
In 2020, the solar tax credit is good for 26% of the system costs. Next year, the credit goes down to 22%, and homeowners might not be able to claim the solar tax credit at all in 2022. However, commercial solar panel tax credits are supposed to stay at 10%. In addition to federal tax credits, many state incentives also reduce the financial burden for homeowners who want to go solar. You may also be eligible for municipal programs and rebates that lower the cost even more.
Electricity needs
Solar panel costs average between $2.51 and $3.31 per watt. According to Solar Action Alliance, installers who buy in wholesale pay closer to 85 cents per watt. Solar panels are rated by kilowatt (kW). One kW equals 1,000 watts. After tax credits, a 2-kW system averages $4,381. Expect to pay around $11,000 for a 5-kW system, and a 10-kW system costs around $22,000.
Choice of panels
Not all solar panels are created equal. Of the three types of solar panels available, monocrystalline and polycrystalline are most commonly used to power homes. Panels made with monocrystalline are usually more efficient, but they’re also more expensive than polycrystalline panels. If you have limited roof space, you might need to get more efficient (and more expensive) panels. For more information, read about how to find the best solar panels.
Where you live
Your location also affects the cost of going solar. To figure out how many photovoltaic (PV) panels your system needs, multiply your average hourly energy requirement by peak sunlight hours in your area, then divide by a panel’s wattage. We suggest establishing a range with high-wattage and low-wattage examples.

Most American homes end up needing around 30 panels to supply 100% of their energy needs. The average cost of solar panels also depends on the size of your system. Most roof solar panels are about 5½ feet tall by 3 feet wide, so consider the size of your roof.

Purchasing options
Like buying a new car, you can pay for solar panels outright, but most people don’t. Solar panels have a high upfront cost, but homeowners and business owners can use loans, solar leases or power purchase agreements (PPA). Read our solar financing guide for more information about companies that can help you finance your solar purchase and make the solar panel cost easier for you to manage.

How are solar panels installed?

In a sense, all the research you’re doing now is the hardest part of installing solar panels on your home. The time between when you get a quote from a solar energy company to solar panel installation can be anywhere between one and four months. The whole process can be described in six steps:

  1. Purchase your solar panel equipment.
    The two most important pieces of equipment in any residential solar power system are the panels and inverters. Your installer will likely make recommendations about both, but most people find that understanding how solar panels work makes it easier to decide which solar panels are the best for them.
  2. A solar installation engineer will visit your property.
    After you sign a contract, the first sign of progress in your solar panel installation is meeting an engineer at your home. They will make sure that your roof can support solar panels' weight and check your circuit breaker or electrical panel. Once an engineer determines that your home is structurally sound enough to support solar panel installation, it’s time to start filling out forms.
  3. Fill out paperwork.
    Your installer should handle most of the complicated paperwork — federal and state tax incentives and rebates, PACE and other clean energy financing initiatives and solar renewable energy certificates (SRECs) — but you should be aware of what is getting filed where. In addition to helping you apply for state and federal incentives, your installer should also be knowledgeable about local building permits and restrictions and may even fill out this paperwork for you. Once all your paperwork is filed and approved, your installer orders the equipment you selected when you signed your contract, and you’re added to a solar panel installer’s queue.
  4. Let the pros do all the heavy lifting.
    The actual solar panel installation only takes only a few days at most. First, a solar panel installer preps the roof of your home to make sure everything is still intact from the engineer’s visit. Next, electrical wiring is installed that connects your panels to your power system. Racking is then attached to your roof to support the panels, which go on top of the racking. Finally, inverters, which convert solar power into usable electricity, are connected to the panels.
  5. One last check.
    Someone from your local government must check and approve your installer’s work before you can connect your new panels to the grid. At this point, the inspector looks for faulty wiring or violations of electrical and roof setback codes.
  6. Flip the switch.
    Finally, your local electric company sends a representative to officially connect your new solar panel system to their grid.
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How many solar panels do I need?

Your energy needs determine how many panels you need, which affects the overall price of your solar system installation. To eliminate your electric bill entirely, you must generate 100% of the electricity your home needs. Most homeowners need between 25 and 35 panels to achieve complete energy independence.

Average households need
867 kWh/MONTH
in electrical power

A solar panel typically produces about one kilowatt-hour (kWh) per day, so if your daily kWh usage is 30, you would need 30 solar panels to generate all of your energy needs. If you need to generate extra energy to heat a pool or run the air conditioning for most of the year, this adds to your energy costs.

To estimate the amount of energy you’ll need, you need to know your average kilowatt-hours (kWh). This number should be on your utility bill as “kWh used.” To get your monthly average look at past bills for the past year, add up the stated kWh used and divide by 12.

Next, divide your monthly kWh average by 30 to calculate your daily average. For instance, if your average monthly kWh is 900, then your average daily kWh is 30.

Some solar power calculations are based on a satellite photo of your roof and offer an estimate of how much electricity you can generate. Other calculators use your regional solar irradiation to create the estimate, while others use the size of your roof or your typical electricity consumption with no other factors included. Solar calculations may or may not include federal, state and local incentives that, if you’re eligible, can create significant savings.

Solar panel costs by state

Solar panels costs in the U.S. typically includes equipment and installation services. Visit the Solar Energy Industries Association website to learn about local incentives and tax credits in your area. It’s usually in your best interest to take advantage of state clean energy programs when you can — it lowers your upfront costs and shortens your payback period.

StateStarting cost for 6-kW system*Average cost per watt**2020 federal tax credit value (26%)2021 federal tax credit value (22%
Alabama$13,706$2.45$3,564$3,015
Alaska$13,454$2.41$3,498$2,960
Arizona$13,680$2.67$3,557$3,010
Arkansas$14,713$2.63$3,825$3,237
California$15,240$2.68$3,962$3,353
Colorado$17,100$2.44$4,446$3,762
Connecticut$15,540$2.86$4,040$3,419
District of Columbia$15,720$2.88$4,087$3,458
Delaware$15,300$2.65$3,978$3,366
Florida$13,920$2.41$3,619$3,062
Georgia$15,840$2.33$4,118$3,485
Hawaii$19,560 $2.67$5,086$4,303
Idaho$17,100$2.52$4,446$3,762
Illinois$16,740$2.57$4,352$3,683
Indiana$15,300$2.49$3,978$3,366
Iowa$14,160$2.53$3,682$3,115
Kansas$13,353$2.39$3,472$2,882
Kentucky$13,101$2.34$3,406$2,882
Louisiana$15,660$2.38$4,072$3,445
Maine$16,073$2.87$4,179$3,536
Maryland$15,540$2.74$4,040$3,419
Massachusetts$16,440$2.87$4,274$3,617
Michigan$16,020$2.66$4,165$3,524
Minnesota$17,280$2.74$4,493$3,802
Mississippi$14,763$2.64$3,838$3,248
Missouri$14,461$2.59$3,760$3,181
Montana$16,560$2.42$4,306$3,643
Nebraska$15,820$2.83$4,113$3,480
Nevada$14,760$2.61$3,838$3,247
New Hampshire$17,460$2.83$4,540$3,841
New Jersey$14,520$2.77$3,775$3,194
New Mexico$16,680$2.44$4,337$3,670
New York$15,900$2.86$4,134$3,498
North Carolina$14,040 $2.49$3,650$3,089
North Dakota$13,555$2.42$3,524$2,982
Ohio$14,400$2.50$3,744$3,168
Oklahoma$14,667$2.62$3,813$3,227
Oregon$15,060$2.50$3,916$3,313
Pennsylvania$15,420$2.38$4,009$3,392
Rhode Island$16,200$2.69$4,212$3,564
Sourth Carolina$16,500 $2.62$4,290$3,630
South Dakota$13,535$2.39$3,519$2,978
Tennessee$13,909$2.49$3,616$3,060
Texas$14,820$2.60$3,853$3,260
Utah$15,420$2.66$4,009$3,392
Vermont$16,620$2.85$4,321$3,656
Virgina$15,780$2.66$4,103$3,472
Washington$14,040$2.73$3,650$3,089
West Virgina$14,763$2.64$3,838$3,248
Wisconsin$17,580$2.60$4,571$3,868
Wyoming$14,360$2.57$3,734$3,159

* Before tax credits, according to EnergySage and Solar Reviews

**According to Solar Reviews

How much do solar panels save?

Switching to a solar energy system could potentially cut your energy bill by 75%. The savings you and your family see will depend greatly on where you live, what the climate is like and your particular energy needs. For instance, an average homeowner in Portland, Oregan, will see total savings of $38,000, whereas a homeowner in Los Angeles could save as much as $90,000 over 20 years.

Many solar energy companies provide a free calculator tool to help you easily estimate the cost and savings of installing solar panels on your home. Different solar calculators may estimate electricity costs in different ways. Numbers can be based on the national average, regional averages or other information you provide.

The average American electric bill is between $100 and $200 per month, and the average yearly energy cost is about $1,500. Depending on how much you pay out-of-pocket for the solar panel system, it could take five to 15 years to break even. To calculate how long it will take you to break even on savings versus the cost of your solar panels, first subtract your incentives and rebates from your costs. Divide that number by the amount you are saving on utility bills per year.

Taking into account the 22% to 26% federal tax credit for installing solar panels, most Americans’ solar panels start paying for themselves within seven years. Federal solar-electric property tax credits will decrease to 26% for systems installed before 2021 and decrease again to 22% for systems installed before 2022.

Even if your solar panels generate 100% of your electricity needs, you may still receive a utility bill. However, instead of asking for payments, you will get net metering credits for the month.

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    Bottom line

    The average total cost to install a residential system for solar panels before tax credits or rebates is comparable to the price tag on a new car. When you make the decision to install solar panels on your home, you also have to consider the cost of equipment and installation as well as costs or fees associated with labor, permits, inspections and systems maintenance.

    Since the sun provides a free source of energy, returns are high and maintenance cost is minimal once you’ve paid for your panels and installation. Next, read about the pros and cons of solar panels or learn about how solar panels work.

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    Profile picture of Kathryn Parkman
    by Kathryn Parkman ConsumerAffairs Research Team

    As a member of the ConsumerAffairs Research Team, Kathryn Parkman believes everyone deserves easy access to accurate and comprehensive information on products and businesses before they make a purchase, which is why she spends hours researching companies and industries for ConsumerAffairs. She believes conscious consumption is everyone's responsibility and that all content deserves integrity.