How many EV charging stations are in the U.S.? 2024

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Electric vehicle charging stations have grown steadily, with a 43.7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) between 2018 and 2023, from 22,826 stations nationwide to 64,187. However, electric vehicle (EV) station growth is heavily concentrated among a handful of states, with five states accounting for 46.4% of the nation’s total EV charging stations.

Two recent announcements will likely positively impact the growth of electric vehicles and electric vehicle stations. First, the adoption of Tesla’s North American Charging Standard (NACS) connector by major car manufacturers will allow consumers to connect to Tesla’s Supercharger network and will allow for more interoperable electric cars. Second, the Biden administration announced grants totaling nearly $150 million to the Department of Transportation to upgrade electric vehicle infrastructure in 20 states.

Key insights

There were 20% more electric vehicle stations in the U.S. in 2023 than in 2022.

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Vermont ranks first for the most electric vehicle stations per resident followed by Washington, D.C., and California. The states with the fewest electric vehicle stations per resident are Mississippi, Louisiana and Kentucky.

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California is the most lucrative state to own an electric vehicle. The state has 25.5% of the country’s electric vehicle stations and also ranks third in terms of the number of residents per electric vehicle station.

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Major vehicle manufacturers are adopting Tesla’s NACS connector and partnering with Tesla, so electric vehicle customers will have access to the company’s Supercharger high-speed network.

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The monthly cost of charging an electric car is approximately half the cost of using gas — $60 per month compared to $129 using average rates.

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General EV charging station statistics

As of July 2023, over 9,746,500 Americans owned an electric vehicle. Just over 1 million Americans owned plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV), accounting for 10.4% of the total electric vehicles owned. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) comprised over 64.6% of all electric vehicles, as the availability of electric vehicle charging infrastructure is a concern for some Americans.

There are 64,187 EV charging stations across the U.S. in 2023, an increase of 20% over 2022 when there were 53,492 stations. Correspondingly, there were 175,575 charging outlets in 2023, an increase of roughly 22% over 2022 when outlets totaled 143,771. Electric vehicle charging station infrastructure across the U.S. has increased at a 43.7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) from 2018 to 2023 — 22,826 stations nationwide to 64,187, respectively. Charging outlets at the stations have increased apace with charging stations, with year-over-year growth over 20% nearly every year since 2018.

Charging stations and charging outlet infrastructure in the US, 2018 to 2023

Source: U.S. Department of Energy

EV charging stations by state

Currently, EV charging stations are concentrated. Five states account for 46.4% of the nation’s total EV charging stations, with California the overwhelming leader.

The state of California holds 25.5% of the nation’s total EV stations. New York ranks second, with 6.1% of the total charging stations, followed by Florida (5.4%), Texas (4.8%) and Massachusetts (4.6%).

Currently, there are 3 ½ times more level 2 charging stations nationwide than direct-current fast charging (DCFC) stations: 134,812 level 2 stations compared to 37,752 DCFC stations. Additionally, the number of DCFC stations increased by 19.4% compared to 2022, and the number of level 2 stations increased by 35.8%.

In terms of DCFC stations, the top six states account for 48.8% of America’s DCFC stations. California has the most DCFC stations, holding 27.8% of the country’s total DCFC stations. Texas with 5.9% of the total and Florida with 5.7% follow.4 New York (3.6%), Georgia and Virginia (2.9% each) round out the pack.

Because states vary in size and the number of residents, a comparison of the number of charging stations to the total number of state residents was explored. This figure provides the number of state residents per electric vehicle station, which helps to evaluate the availability of electric vehicle stations when compared to a state’s population. Vermont ranked at the top of the list, with 1,708 residents for each EV station, followed by Washington, D.C., California, Massachusetts and Colorado. The state with the fewest electric vehicle stations per capita was Mississippi, with 17,925 residents per EV station. Louisiana, Kentucky, Indiana and Alabama followed.

Types of EV chargers

There are three types of electric vehicle chargers, level 1, level 2 and direct-current fast charging. The charging equipment ranges in its power and speed of charging a vehicle. Charging times are also affected by battery depletion, battery storage, battery type and the temperature. On average, charging an electric vehicle to 80% can take as little as 20 minutes to 40 or more hours depending on the equipment.

Level 1: This is the most basic and provides charging through a common 120-volt residential outlet, similar to one used for small household items, such as a lamp. On empty, this charging method may take 40 hours or more to charge an all-electric vehicle to 80%.

Level 2: This offers a higher speed of charging through 240-volt outlets, which in residential applications are the type used for large appliances, or 208 volt in commercial applications. Level 2 can charge an all-electric vehicle from empty to 80% capacity in four to 10 hours. Level 2 charging stations are common for home — as some individuals have this equipment installed in their garage — and in workplaces or public charging locations.

Direct-current fast charging (DCFC): This is the fastest charging equipment and can charge an all-electric vehicle to 80% in just 20 minutes to one hour. DCFC equipment is installed on heavily trafficked public corridors at stations. DCFC equipment and level 2 chargers have also been installed at some public locations, including grocery stores, movie theaters and coffee shops.

There are three types of DCFC fast charging equipment:

  • CCS1 connector: This is also known as the SAE J1772 combo and uses the same charge port with the level 1, level 2 and DCFC charging equipment. Most electric vehicle models can charge using the CCS1 connector.
  • CHAdeMO connector: This fast charging connector is common among Japanese car models.
  • J3400 connector: This is also referred to as the North American Charging Standard (NACS) connector. Tesla vehicles can use this charger for all charging levels, and its fast charging level is called a Supercharger. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) International is standardizing the J3400 connector, and vehicle manufacturers are making commitments to incorporate the J3400 connector beginning in 2025 and will provide adapters to owners of vehicles with CCS1 connectors beginning in 2024.
overview of ev chargers infographic

Tesla Superchargers

Tesla has a North American network of 12,000 Superchargers, which are its industrial grade high-speed vehicle chargers. Supercharger stations are typically situated around well-traveled routes and around dense city centers. Use of the Supercharger network either requires paying a fee or is free depending on a customer’s plan. In November 2021, Tesla began to offer Supercharger access to non-Tesla vehicles in certain locations, and in November 2022, the company opened up its previously proprietary charging connector as the NACS, enabling all electric vehicles and charging stations to interoperate. As a result, a number of major automotive companies announced their adoption of the NACS standard with access to the Supercharger network, including Ford, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai and Volvo, among others.

  • Ford announced in May 2023 that its electric vehicle customers would have access to the Tesla Supercharger across the U.S. and Canada beginning in the spring of 2024. Beginning in 2025, Ford plans to offer electric vehicles with the NACS connector, eliminating the need for an adapter to access Tesla Superchargers.
  • General Motors announced in June 2023 that its customers will have access to Tesla Superchargers beginning in early 2024, and the company will begin to integrate the NACS technology into electric vehicles beginning in 2025.
  • Honda announced on September 7, 2023, that it will adopt the NACS standard for its vehicles sold in North America starting in 2025. The company plans to launch a new EV vehicle in 2025 with a NACS port.
  • Hyundai is debuting electric vehicle models with the NACS technology in 2024’s fourth quarter. The company reported in October 2023 that its electric vehicles with NACS will have access to the Tesla Superchargers in North America, and vehicles with combined charging system (CCS) ports will be able to access the Supercharger network through an adapter beginning in 2025.
  • Volvo signed an agreement with Tesla to give its electric vehicles access to the company’s Supercharger network in June 2023. Starting from 2025, Volvo cars sold in North America will be equipped with the NACS charging port.

EV charging costs

One of the top consumer questions is how much it costs to charge an electric vehicle, particularly as it compares to fuel costs. As many electric vehicle owners will charge at home, the cost of electricity will be affected. To determine the costs, you will need a copy of your electricity bill to estimate the costs in three steps. First, divide the total number of kilowatt hours (kWh) used into the total electricity costs for the month. This total provides you with the price paid per kWh of electricity. Second, estimate the total number of miles that you drive each month, and divide by three to determine the kWh that you would use per month. The average electric vehicle gets three to four miles per kWh, so three is a conservative estimate. Third, multiply the cost per kWh by the number of estimated miles calculated from step two to determine total charging costs.

To illustrate the steps above with an example:

  1. The household average of kWh is $0.16/kWh.
  2. If you drove 1,124 miles a month, the average across Americans, with an electric vehicle averaging three to four miles per kWh, you will use an approximately 375 kWh per month.
  3. $0.16 x 375 kWh = $60 a month to charge your vehicle

To compare this to an average car using fuel:

  1. Assume that the average car gets 30 miles per gallon (mpg). 1,124 miles/30mpg = 37.47 gallons
  2. Assume the gas price is $3.40 per gallon. $3.40/gallon x 37.47 gallons = $127.40 using gas

Cost of EV chargers

The cost of electric vehicle charging equipment costs ranges are based upon the location, charging level and type. According to a study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Idaho National Laboratory, level 1 charging equipment and installation costs are zero for individuals, while level 2 median equipment costs are $550 and median installation costs are $1,286.10 Level 2 equipment chargers with public charging capability median costs were $3,500 and median installation costs ran $2,500.

Median costs of electric vehicle supply equipment

Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory

Reliability of EV chargers

On January 18, 2024, the Biden administration announced grants totaling almost $150 million to the Department of Transportation to upgrade electric vehicle infrastructure in 20 states. The grants will be used to repair or replace nearly 4,500 existing electric vehicle charging ports and, where necessary, bring the equipment up to code.

FAQ

Is car insurance for electric vehicles the same as a conventional car model?

According to a AAA Your Driving Cost study, the average annual cost of full-coverage insurance for a hybrid vehicle is $1,710 and $1,820 for an electric vehicle compared to the weighted average cost of insurance of other car makes and models which is $1,765. Consumers may pay slightly more for electric vehicle insurance for the following reasons:

  • Electric vehicles are expensive to repair, which results in higher rates for comprehensive and collision coverage.
  • Electric vehicle battery replacement can cost $15,000 or more.
  • There is a scarcity of some parts for electric vehicles.
  • There are fewer trained electric vehicle technicians.
Are there tax incentives for purchasing an electric vehicle?

Yes, under the clean vehicle tax credit, you may qualify for up to $7,500 if you buy a new, qualified plug-in electric vehicle or fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to qualify, one must buy the vehicle for one’s own use and not for resale and use it primarily in the U.S. Modified adjusted gross income (AGI) may not exceed $300,000 for married couples filing jointly, $225,000 for heads of households and $150,000 for all other filers. The credit amount depends on when the vehicle was in service and includes qualified vehicles.

How can I plan a road trip with an electric vehicle?

As a first resource, you can use the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center,4 which provides all of the electric vehicle charging centers in the U.S. It is searchable, and you can filter the results depending on location and charger types. There are also numerous apps and platforms that can assist in trip planning, including PlugShare, ChargeFinder, EV Safe Charge, Electrify America and RoadTrippers, to name a few.

References

  1. Lindwall, C. “Electric Vehicle Charging Explained.” Natural Resources Defense Council. Evaluated Feb. 1, 2024. Link Here
  2. “Charger Types and Speeds.” U.S. Department of Transportation. Evaluated Feb. 1, 2024. Link Here
  3. “Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging: The Basics.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Evaluated Feb. 1, 2024. Link Here
  4. “Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State.” U.S. Department of Energy. Evaluated Feb. 1, 2024. Link Here
  5. “Biden-Harris Administration Announces Grants to Upgrade Almost 4,500 Public Electric Vehicle Chargers.” U.S. Department of Transportation. Evaluated Feb. 1, 2024. Link Here
  6. “State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2023.” U.S. Census Bureau. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  7. “Developing Infrastructure to Charge Electric Vehicles.” U.S. Department of Energy. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  8. “SAE J3400 Charging Connector.” Joint Office of Energy and Transportation. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  9. “The Cost to Charge an Electric Vehicle Explained.” U.S. Department of Energy. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  10. Borlaug, B. “Levelized Cost of Charging Electric Vehicles in the United States.” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  11. “Honda to Adopt North American Charging Standard (NACS) for its EV Models in North America.” Honda Press Release. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  12. “Electric Volvo car drivers will get access to 12,000 Tesla Superchargers across the United States, Canada and Mexico as Volvo Cars adopts North American Charging Standard.” Volvo Cars Global Newsroom. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  13. “FORD EV Customers To Gain Access to 12,000 Tesla Superchargers; Company To Add North American Charging Standard Port in Future EVS.” Ford Newsroom. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  14. “General Motors Doubles Down on Commitment to a Unified Charging Standard and Expands Charging Access to Tesla Supercharger Network.” General Motors Newsroom. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  15. “Hyundai Electric Vehicles to Add North American Charging Standard.” Hyundai Media Center. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  16. “Tesla Annual 10-K for the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023.” United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  17. “Electric Vehicle Registrations by State.” U.S. Department of Energy. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  18. “2023 Your Driving Costs Study.” AAA. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  19. Vigderman, A. “Electric Vehicle Insurance Guide.” Autoinsurance.com. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  20. “Credits for New Clean Vehicles Purchased in 2023 or After.” Internal Revenue Service. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here
  21. Hardesty, K. “How to Take an EV Road Trip.” Kelly Blue Book. Evaluated Feb. 6, 2024. Link Here

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