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When dining out, pay attention to calories

Here are some tips for avoiding extra, and unhealthy pounds

Nutritionists will tell you that there is more to weight control than counting calories. But it can't be denied that piling up the calories will usually lead to packing on some extra pounds.

When you prepare meals at home you can take steps to minimize extra calories and increase awareness of the ingredients that go into your food. When you dine out at restaurants, it's not as easy.

That requires some discretion when you order from the menu, avoiding dishes that, just from the descriptions, you know are packed with extra calories. In its latest release of the Xtreme Eating Awards, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) highlights a few dishes in particular that may be very tasty, but are high in calories.

The group singles out chain restaurants for top honors, saying some dishes have twice the calories a person should consume in a single day. You'll find the full list of this year's "honorees" here.

Pancakes as a side dish

“Leave it to America’s chain restaurant industry to market a stack of pancakes as a side dish, or to lard up quesadillas and pasta with pizza toppings, or to ruin a perfectly good sweet potato,” said CSPI senior nutritionist Lindsay Moyer. “These meals are extreme, but even the typical dishes served at restaurants are a threat to Americans’ health because they increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and more.”

But the experts at Fitness Magazine say it is possible to dine out without going overboard on calories. It starts with arriving at the restaurant without a huge appetite. If you're famished, chances are you'll fill up on bread before the food arrives.

Go easy on the wine. There's about 100 calories in each glass. That goes for cocktails too.

Look closely at dishes labeled "light." They may qualify because they are low in carbs, but may still have lots of calories.

Portion control

Portion control is a big factor. Restaurants like to serve huge portions of food because they believe that's what their customers want. But no one needs to eat that much food. Just eat some of it and take the rest home. It might feed you for several days.

Several months from now it will be easier to keep tabs on calories when dining out, as the Food and Drug Administration's final menu labeling rule takes effect in May 2018. That rule will require restaurants with 20 or more locations to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Many fast food restaurants have already taken that step.

The rule has been expanded to include supermarkets, but last week the House Energy & Commerce Committee approved a bipartisan bill to give grocery stores added flexibility.

The Food Marketing Institute pushed for the bill, saying the FDA rule did not take into account the variety of foods and formats found in grocery stores.

Nutritionists will tell you that there is more to weight control than counting calories. But it can't be denied that piling up the calories will usually le...

Why the alternate-day fasting diet might not be right for you

Researchers say the diet does not guarantee better results and may be harder to follow

If you’re a consumer who struggles with obesity or being overweight, then one of the first suggestions you’re likely to hear is that you should restrict the number of calories you consume each day. However, this can be a major test of willpower for some, and different fad diets have tried to come up with ways that allow consumers to lose weight while letting them eat what they want.

One of the newest strategies is called alternate-day fasting, where consumers are encouraged to eat whatever they want on one day and follow it up with a day of fasting where they only consume up to 25% of their usual calorie intake. This approach has increased in popularity and has even made its way into several diet books, with proponents calling it a superior way to lose weight. But does it work?

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago set out to answer that question and found that the diet might not be all it’s cracked up to be. After conducting a one-year randomized clinical trial, they found that participants who followed an alternate-day fasting diet did not experience any additional weight loss when compared to those who dieted normally.

"The results of this randomized clinical trial demonstrated that alternate-day fasting did not produce superior adherence, weight loss, weight maintenance or improvements in risk indicators for cardiovascular disease compared with daily calorie restriction," the researchers said.

Trouble sticking to the diet

The study included 100 obese participants between the ages of 18 and 64 that were assigned to one of three groups for one year. One group followed an alternate-day fasting diet where participants consumed only 25% of their calorie needs on “fast” days and 125% of calorie needs on “feast” days; one group restricted their calorie intake to 75% of their caloric needs every day; and one group was given no intervention.

At the beginning of the experiment, the researchers expected that those following an alternate-day fasting diet would be able to adhere to their diet more easily, achieve greater weight loss, and reduce their risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the end results showed that these participants had the most trouble following their diet plan.

“Participants in the alternate-day fasting group ate more than prescribed on fast days, and less than prescribed on feast days, while those in the daily calorie restriction group generally met their prescribed energy goals,” the researchers said.

Not “superior”

In addition to not losing any more weight than participants in the calorie restriction group, the researchers found that those in the alternate-day fasting group were more likely to drop out of the study.

“Alternate-day fasting has been promoted as a potentially superior alternative to daily calorie restriction under the assumption that it is easier to restrict calories every other day. However, our data from food records. . . indicate that this assumption is not the case. Rather, it appears as though many participants in the alternate-day fasting group converted their diet into de facto calorie restriction as the trial progressed,” the researchers said.

“Moreover, the dropout rate in the alternate-day fasting group (38%) was higher than that in the daily calorie restriction group (29%) and the control group (26%). It was also shown that more participants in the alternate-day fasting group withdrew owing to dissatisfaction with diet compared with those in the daily calorie restriction group. Taken together, these findings suggest that alternate-day fasting may be less sustainable in the long term, compared with daily calorie restriction, for most obese individuals.”

The researchers point out that some individuals may still prefer alternate-day fasting over more conventional dieting techniques, but their study does put into question whether or not this new technique truly is “superior.”

The full study has been published in JAMA Internal Medicine.

If you’re a consumer who struggles with obesity or being overweight, then one of the first suggestions you’re likely to hear is that you should restrict th...

Loyola study discounts exercise in weight loss

Researchers conclude working out isn't the key to weight control

A new study by researchers at Loyola University will no doubt be hailed by couch potatoes everywhere.

After reviewing their latest findings, these scientists are suggesting that losing weight may not depend all that much on getting exercise.

The researchers say they closely followed young adults in the U.S. and four other countries and concluded that neither the amount of exercise they got nor the amount of sedentary time they spent had much to do with gaining weight.

“Our study results indicate that physical activity may not protect you from gaining weight,” said lead author Lara R. Dugas, an assistant professor in Loyola's Department of Public Health Sciences.

Exercise has its benefits

Dugas and her colleagues want to be very clear. They are in no way advocating a life on the couch watching TV or playing video games. Physical activity, they say, has many health benefits -- keeping many chronic diseases at bay while improving mood and mental health.

But there's a trade-off. The more you exercise the more your appetite may increase. It all seems to even out, they say.

The study may prove to be fodder in the ongoing debate between health advocates and food and beverage manufacturers over the causes of obesity. Business has long pointed out that consumers need to be more active, and if they are then a few extra calories won't matter that much.

Attack on beverages

Health advocates have been quite vocal in their criticism of this argument, saying Americans are consuming way too many calories, particularly from sweetened beverages. In recent months their attack has been broadened to an attack on calorie-free artificial sweeteners.

Without overtly stepping into the politics of the argument, the Loyola researchers appear to be coming down on the side of not depending on exercise alone to keep from packing on pounds.

So what will help you lose weight? That's a debate that's still underway but a report published last year suggested portion control may be a significant factor.

"Participants who were prescribed twice-daily prepackaged meals lost about 8% of their initial weight, compared to participants in the control group – who could select their own diets – who only lost about 6%,” said lead researcher Cheryl Rock, of the University of California San Diego School of Medicine.

A helpful tool in losing or maintaining weight, she said, is removing the guesswork involved in planning and preparing low-calorie meals.

A new study by researchers at Loyola University will no doubt be hailed by couch potatoes everywhere.After reviewing their latest findings, these scien...

Super Bowl Sunday can be a calorie trap

10 Buffalo wings with blue cheese dressing can pack 1,400 calories

Super Bowl Sunday is a lot like Thanksgiving. There's a lot of eating and drinking and sitting on the couch watching football.

And just like Thanksgiving, there's an opportunity for people to pack on some extra pounds by over-indulging.

Charles Platkin, executive director of the New York City Food Policy Center at Hunter College and editor of, says most people probably have no idea how many calories they're consuming on game day and how much physical effort will be required to burn them off.

So, Platkin has come up with a typical Super Bowl party menu and calculated what's required to burn the calories. The results may astound you.

Chicken wings

For example, a staple of any football gathering is Buffalo crispy chicken wings, typically served with delicious blue cheese dressing. By halftime, you might have downed 10 of them.

But the 10 wings have a combined 950 calories, and when dipped in the blue cheese dressing, that surges to 1,400 calories.

To burn all those calories, Platkin says you would need to run the length of 149 football fields. Don't have a calculator handy? I'll do the math for you. That's the equivalent of running 8.4 miles.

But it wouldn't be a Super Bowl without wings, right? Platkin says just eat fewer of them, and make the wings yourself, first removing the skin and baking them instead of frying. You can also substitute hot sauce with salad dressing.

Meatball sub

Maybe a footlong meatball sub from Subway is on your Super Bowl menu. Yes, it's tasty, loaded with Provolone cheese and marinara sauce with double meatballs on a hearty Italian roll.

If you eat the whole thing, that's 932 calories. To burn them off, Platkin says you'll need to climb stadium steps for a solid one hour, 49 minutes.

His suggestion? Go with turkey meatballs, low-fat mozzarella, and a whole-grain hero. Or try Subway's Oven Roasted Chicken sub, which is just 467 calories in the footlong version.

Craft beer

There are also a lot of liquid calories consumed during the Big Game. Drinking four Samuel Adams Boston Lagers -- limiting yourself to one per quarter -- is still drinking a total of 720 calories. And that's on top of the calories from the food you eat.

Platkin says to burn those calories you'd need to play 68 minutes of professional football, with no breaks between plays or for timeouts.

You can always cut your beer consumption to two light beers, which can contain as few as 55 calories each.

You can learn more about the calorie content of other Super Bowl party favorites here.

Super Bowl Sunday is a lot like Thanksgiving. There's a lot of eating and drinking and sitting on the couch watching football.And just like Thanksgivin...

Researchers develop a way for consumers to burn excess fat

The solution would take place at the cellular level, but more research is needed

Consumers looking to lose weight may have spent countless hours in a sweltering gym trying to burn away excess fat. But is there an easier way to melt away the pounds that isn’t so labor-intensive and time consuming?

Perhaps not yet, but scientists at the University of Bonn believe that they have a potential answer. Dr. Alexander Pfeifer and his fellow researchers have been researching how to burn away fat for years, and a recent study using mice shows that making changes at the cellular level could make it possible.

The process involves converting unwanted white fat cells into brown slimming cells that consume energy. The difference between the cells is that the latter is packed with much more mitochondria, the so-called “power stations” of the cell. These extra reserves of mitochondria take white fat cells and use them to produce thermal energy, effectively burning them away.

During the study, the researchers converted white fat cells into brown slimming cells in mice and found that the subjects lost a significant amount of weight after the process was completed. Additionally, they found that combining this process with certain active ingredients reduced the number of white fat cells and increased the number of brown slimming cells, which accelerated the fat burning process. This gives some hope that this kind of therapy could be used to combat obesity and obesity-related health conditions, such as joint problems, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Problems to work out

While the findings are encouraging, Pfeifer and his team say that there are some complications that need to be worked out with the process, specifically when used with obese subjects.

Currently, the use of the certain active ingredients kicks fat burning into overdrive, but certain types of fat have proven to be more resistant due to inflammation. Specifically, the researchers noted that subcutaneous fat – the kind found closest to the surface of the skin – was affected normally by the therapy, but deeper-lying abdominal fat was more problematic.

The researchers found that subjects with this deeper-lying fat had much more inflammation than those who didn’t, and that inflammation effectively shuts down and blocks the pathways that the therapy uses to turn white fat cells into brown fat cells. Additionally, the risk of this kind of inflammation is already high because it promotes cardiovascular diseases, which makes the problem twice as bad, the researchers said.

While a concrete solution has not yet materialized, researcher and lead author Abhishek Sanyal believes that halting the abdominal fat’s inflammatory response while simultaneously administering the therapy’s active ingredients could be a good starting point for tests.

The full study has been published in Cell Reports.

Consumers looking to lose weight may have spent countless hours in a sweltering gym trying to burn away excess fat. But is there an easier way to melt away...

How eating more beans and peas could help you lose weight

Researchers say fiber-rich diets based on legumes can help you eat less and feel full

With the end of the year steadily approaching, some consumers may already be thinking about their New Year’s resolutions. Unfortunately, if you – like many others – will be making the pledge to drop a few pounds, putting up a new calendar won’t make it any easier.

There are plenty of reasons why someone may fail in their weight-loss goal. Going out and getting exercise can be like pulling teeth for some people, and starting a new, healthier diet can leave others still feeling hungry. Luckily, researchers at the University of Copenhagen’s Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports may have a remedy for the latter problem.

Professor Anne Raben and her colleagues have conducted a study and found that meals that include beans and peas can be more satiating than those based on meats like veal, pork, or beef. They say that making this dietary change could lead to greater weight loss because consumers won’t feel the need to eat as much.

Feeling full

Many dietary recommendations currently favor diets rich in protein to solve the problem of feeling hungry. That usually means eating more meat, but the researchers say that certain legumes can do the trick just as well.

They conducted a study in which 43 young, male participants were served three different meals consisting of patties; each was made up of either beans and peas or veal and pork. The researchers measured how much food was eaten to satisfy hunger and how much food was eaten at the next meal as an indication of satiety.

The findings showed that the patties made from beans and peas could satisfy the hunger of participants just as well as patties made from meat. Further, participants consumed 12% fewer calories in their next meal when eating legumes compared to meals after eating meat. The researchers believe that fiber content may have been the key.

"The protein-rich meal composed of legumes contained significantly more fiber than the protein-rich meal of pork and veal, which probably contributed to the increased feeling of satiety," said Raben.

Aiding weight loss

The researchers believe that dieting consumers would benefit from adding more legumes to their diets as opposed to meat. Raben admits that this notion against consuming larger amounts of protein goes against the norm.

"[The research] is somewhat contrary to the widespread belief that one ought to consume a large amount of protein because it increases satiety more. Now, something suggests that one can eat a fiber-rich meal, with less protein, and achieve the same sensation of fullness."

"While more studies are needed for a definitive proof, it appears as if vegetable-based meals -- particularly those based on beans and peas -- both can serve as a long-term basis for weight loss and as a sustainable eating habits,” she said.

The full study has been published in Food & Nutrition Research.

With the end of the year steadily approaching, some consumers may already be thinking about their New Year’s resolutions. Unfortunately, if you – like many...

Study explains why aspartame may not help with weight loss

An aspartame breakdown product interfere with a vital enzyme

Studies have found that the sugar substitute aspartame -- sold under the brand names NutraSweet and Equal -- isn't as helpful in losing weight as one might think, and now researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital have found a possible explanation.

In their report published online in Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, the researchers show how an aspartame breakdown product called phenylalanine interferes with the action of an enzyme previously shown to prevent metabolic syndrome, the symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

They also found that mice receiving aspartame in their drinking water gained more weight and developed other symptoms of metabolic syndrome than animals fed similar diets that lacked aspartame.

Gut enzyme

"Sugar substitutes like aspartame are designed to promote weight loss and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, but a number of clinical and epidemiologic studies have suggested that these products don't work very well and may actually make things worse," says Richard Hodin, MD, of the MGH Department of Surgery, the study's senior author.

"We found that aspartame blocks a gut enzyme called intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) that we previously showed can prevent obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome; so we think that aspartame might not work because, even as it is substituting for sugar, it blocks the beneficial aspects of IAP."

Hodin and colleagues have been working on the issue for quite awhile. In 2013, they published a study that found that feeding IAP to mice kept on a high-fat diet could prevent the development of metabolic syndrome and reduce symptoms in animals that already had the condition.

Phenylalanine is known to inhibit the action of IAP, and the fact that it is produced when aspartame is digested led the researchers to investigate whether that could explain aspartame's lack of a weight-loss effect.

IAP is primarily produced in the small intestine, and the researchers found that injecting an aspartame solution into segments of the small intestines of mice significantly reduced the enzyme's activity. In contrast, IAP activity remained unchanged in bowel segments injected with a saline solution.

"People do not really understand why these artificial sweeteners don't work. There has been some evidence that they actually can make you more hungry and may be associated with increased calorie consumption. Our findings regarding aspartame's inhibition of IAP may help explain why the use of aspartame is counterproductive," says Hodin, who is a professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School.

"While we can't rule out other contributing mechanisms, our experiments clearly show that aspartame blocks IAP activity, independent of other effects," he said. 

Studies have found that the sugar substitute aspartame -- sold under the brand names NutraSweet and Equal -- isn't as helpful in losing weight as one might...

High-protein diet doesn't help prevent type 2 diabetes, study finds

Obese postmenopausal women got more benefit from a diet that included more moderate amounts of protein

A lot of people go out of their way to eat extra protein. Dieters, in particular, think that eating more protein helps them stave off hunger and prevent the loss of muscle tissue that often comes with weight loss.

But is this really a good idea? In a study of 34 postmenopausal women with obesity, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis found that eating too much protein eliminates an important health benefit of weight loss -- improvement in insulin sensitivity, which is critical to lowering diabetes risk.

"We found that women who lost weight eating a high-protein diet didn't experience any improvements in insulin sensitivity," said principal investigator Bettina Mittendorfer, PhD, a professor of medicine. "However, women who lost weight while eating less protein were significantly more sensitive to insulin at the conclusion of the study. That's important because in many overweight and obese people, insulin does not effectively control blood-sugar levels, and eventually the result is type 2 diabetes."

A good marker

In fact, the researchers say, insulin sensitivity is a good marker of metabolic health, one that typically improves with weight loss. In their study, the women who lost weight while consuming less protein experienced a 25 to 30 percent improvement in their sensitivity to insulin.

Many dieters think that consuming extra protein can help preserve lean tissue -- muscle, in other words -- allowing them to lose fat without losing muscle. But Mittendorfer's findings don't support that belief.

"When you lose weight, about two-thirds of it tends to be fat tissue, and the other third is lean tissue," Mittendorfer said. "The women who ate more protein did tend to lose a little bit less lean tissue, but the total difference was only about a pound. We question whether there's a significant clinical benefit to such a small difference."

While the difference in muscle mass loss was slight, the same wasn't true of metabolism. The women who ate the recommended amount of protein saw big benefits in metabolism, led by a 25 to 30 percent improvement in their insulin sensitivity. That can lower the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The women on the high-protein diet, meanwhile, did not experience those improvements.

"Very big effects"

"Changing the protein content has very big effects," Mittendorfer said. "It's not that the metabolic benefits of weight loss were diminished -- they were completely abolished in women who consumed high-protein diets, even though they lost the same, substantial amounts of weight as women who ate the diet that was lower in protein."

The study included 34 obese women 50 to 65 years old. Although all were obese, none had diabetes at the time of the study. They were placed in three groups for the 28-week study -- a control group, a group that ate the recommended date allowance of protein, and a third group that ate more protein.

It's still not clear why insulin sensitivity didn't improve in the high-protein group, and Mittendorfer said it's not known whether the same results would occur in men or in women already diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. She plans to continue researching the subject.

The findings became available Oct. 11 in the journal Cell Reports.

A lot of people go out of their way to eat extra protein. Dieters, in particular, think that eating more protein helps them stave off hunger and prevent th...

Researchers claim bias in industry-backed artificial sweetener studies

Study points finger at reviewers with alleged conflicts of interest

A study by Australian researchers has questioned the integrity of other studies funded by the artificial sweetener industry.

Writing up their findings in PLOS ONE, researchers at the University of Sydney claim studies funded by artificial sweetener companies were nearly 17 times more likely to reach conclusions favorable to the industry.

"It's alarming to see how much power the artificial sweetener industry has over the results of its funded research, with not only the data but also the conclusions of these studies emphasizing artificial sweeteners' positive effects while neglecting mention of any drawbacks," said co-author Lisa Bero.

Bero says the results of these studies can have enormous influence, since they are often used by governments in the development of dietary guidelines.

Conflict of interest?

The researchers also point a finger at the authors of these studies, claiming many had undisclosed conflicts of interest. In fact, they say 42% of the reviews were written by people with a conflict of interest.

"Our analysis shows that the claims made by artificial sweetener companies should be taken with a degree of skepticism, as many existing studies into artificial sweeteners seem to respond to sponsor demands to exaggerate positive results, even when they are conducted with standard methods,” Bero said.

Many consumers turn to products with artificial sweeteners in an effort to reduce sugar consumption. In its analysis of artificial sweeteners, the Mayo Clinic reports there may be some advantages, as well as drawbacks.

Pros and cons

On the plus side, the Mayo Clinic says these sweeteners may help you control weight, and be a good alternative to sugar if you have diabetes. It says artificial sweeteners usually don't raise blood sugar levels because they are not carbohydrates.

At the same time, the Mayo Clinic acknowledges that there have been health concerns about artificial sweeteners over the years, including possible links to cancer.

“But according to the National Cancer Institute and other health agencies, there's no sound scientific evidence that any of the artificial sweeteners approved for use in the U.S. cause cancer or other serious health problems,” the Clinic says on its website.

But in recent years, some researchers have questioned artificial sweeteners' effectiveness in weight control. A 2008 Purdue University study linked artificial sweeteners to weight gain.

More recently, researchers in the UK suggested people who were obese and consumed artificial sweeteners could have complications with glucose management.

A study by Australian researchers has questioned the integrity of other studies funded by the artificial sweetener industry.Writing up their findings i...

Why your diet usually fails

Nutrition author says eating healthy food is key to battling obesity

There all kinds of diets and weight loss programs, and while some undoubtedly achieve results for some people, it's also clear that the majority of people who start a diet soon give up.

Nutrition author Phoenix Gilman says the main reason diets fail is carbohydrate craving, leading to an overwhelming appetite.

"Millions of people still tragically believe in the low fat myth,” she said. “That alone has perpetuated our obesity epidemic, among numerous other diseases.”

Gilman says the simple answer to losing or controlling weight is learning what is healthy to eat and consuming reasonable portions of it. She says it's also important to understand the role of chemicals produced by the brain.

Gilman works with individual clients to help them lose weight, specializing in women over 40.

"As a woman myself, and one who's 57, this is a major turning point for women who are now looking in the mirror and asking, 'What happened?' Most have devoted their life to husbands, careers and raising children. Their health wasn't often a priority,” she said.

Laundry list of problems

Gilman attributes a laundry list of problems to poor nutrition -- from obesity, diabetes, and addictions, to depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Highly processed foods, she maintains, adjust brain chemicals that often send people running to the refrigerator.

Academic researchers have been onto this for some time. Back in 2007, researchers at UCLA conducted a study that concluded diets lead to temporary weight loss, at best.

"You can initially lose 5% to 10% of your weight on any number of diets, but then the weight comes back," Traci Mann, UCLA associate professor of psychology and lead author of the study, said at the time. "We found that the majority of people regained all the weight, plus more.”

It's true, Mann said, that a small minority of dieters were able to sustain their weight loss. It is also true, she said, that the majority regained all their weight.

Mann went so far as to contend that most dieters would have been better off not even trying to lose weight.

Gilman obviously disagrees, with the caveat that sensible portions of healthy, nutritious food is one diet that can work.

There all kinds of diets and weight loss programs, and while some undoubtedly achieve results for some people, it's also clear that the majority of people...

How to lose weight eating what you want

“Mindful eating” emerges as alternative to dieting

Helping people try to lose weight is big business. Americans spend close to $60 billion a year on weight loss products, according to the Bharat Book Bureau, a business data firm. That includes everything from diet soda to special meal plans.

While obesity statistics show that a lot of us really need to shed some pounds, there's a growing belief in diet circles that it's not so much what you eat, but how you eat it.

“You can eat anything you want, as long as you do it mindfully,” said Lynn Rossy, a health psychologist for the Total Rewards Program at the University of Missouri system.


The key word there is “mindfully.” Mindfulness, which has its roots in Buddhist teachings, is a philosophy that has taken hold in many areas of life, so it isn't surprising that it's being harnessed to help people lose or control weight.

Mindfulness is based on living in the moment, being totally aware of your experience. It is being used to help people reduce stress and and focus on what they are doing, to make them happier and more productive. So, how does that translate to eating?

“Mindful eating means choosing food that will satisfy you and nourish your body as well as being aware of physical hunger and satiety cues,” Rossy said. “Food should be pleasurable to your taste buds and to your body.”

It's an abrupt departure from restricting calories by eating foods you might not particularly like but that are low in calories. Rossy says the mindfulness-based eating solution teaches people how to use their own internal signals to guide how, when, what, and why they eat. More importantly, she says you should eat food you like, just not as much of it.

Key elements

That's easier to do, she says, when you are slowly savoring each bite and enjoying it. As a result, she says people are more satisfied and less likely to overeat. Here are the key elements:

  • Do a breathing exercise and decide if you are really hungry
  • Assess your food and decide if you really want to eat it
  • Eat slowly and be aware of signals your body might send suggesting you are full
  • Chew thoroughly
  • Savor what you are eating

“Diets do not work in the long term because they do not help people access their own internal wisdom about how to eat,” Rossy said. “Taking a mindful approach to eating also helps people discover desires that can be ignored through eating for emotional reasons—desires for creativity, movement, connection, meaningful work and spirituality.”

It may be no coincidence that Fortune Magazine reports the diet industry is losing ground, even as the obesity rate rises. It conducted a survey last year that found many more consumers say they are trying to eat healthier than say they are on a diet.

Helping people try to lose weight is big business. Americans spend close to $60 billion a year on weight loss products, according to the Bharat Book Bureau...

Additional research shows that overeating leads to more eating

High-fat diets can be especially bad for gut-to-brain communication, researchers say

Last month, we reported on a study which showed that overeating leads to even more eating. The premise of the research was that eating too much in one sitting suppresses a hormone that tells your brain that you’re full.

Now, a new study conducted by the University of Georgia, Binghamton University, and Pennsylvania State University have reached similar conclusions. Researchers found that foods that are high in fat disturb neural messages to the brain that allow you to feel full. However, they believe that manipulating microbes in the stomach may reverse the effect.

Stifled communication

The study involved examining the “gut-to-brain” neural pathways in mice, who were sustained on a high-fat diet. The researchers found that regions of the brain responsible for processing feeding behavior became inflamed when high amounts of fat were introduced.

In order to determine the cause, they began examining microbiota in the stomach to see if the diet influenced composition. After finding a connection, lead researcher Dr. Claire de La Serre and her colleagues began injecting mice with low doses of a spectrum antibiotic that was able to reverse the negative effects.

Potential impact

There is potential for the impact of this study to be great. It precisely demonstrates to what extent stomach microbiota are affected by a high-fat diet. Information gleaned from the research could allow the medical community to come up with new therapies and medications that counter trends in overeating and obesity, two major health concerns.

One additional study has already made some progress by showing that eating certain types of foods can benefit microbiota composition in the stomach. Researchers found that eating blueberries, which have high levels of anthocyanin, can help lessen inflammation and lead to more stable blood sugar levels. Additional research into other bioactive foods will almost certainly follow.

Research conducted by De la Serre et al is scheduled to be presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB), which takes place from July 12-16.  

Last month, we reported on a study which showed that overeating leads to even more eating. The premise of the research was that eating too much in one sitt...

The reason why your diet may not be working out

Focus on the foods you enjoy when making your plan, researchers say

What is the most important aspect of making a successful diet plan? Many people might say that it has to do with avoiding unhealthy foods and substituting them with well-known, healthy options. However, new research shows that this line of thinking may actually lead to failure more often than not.

Instead, researchers from Baylor University’s Hankamer School of Business say that consumers should focus on adding healthy foods that they actually enjoy to their diet.

“Our research shows that instead of creating rules to avoid one’s favorite treats, dieters should focus on eating healthy foods that they enjoy. . . Dieters who restrict themselves from consuming foods they love most may be setting themselves up for future failure,” said Dr. Meredith David, assistant professor at Baylor and lead author of a study on the subject.

Approach dieting differently

The study analyzed data on 542 participants who answered questions related to creating a successful diet plan. The focus of the study was to gauge participants’ level of self-control and see how that affected their choices.

When asked about diet rules that they would create, a majority of respondents said that they would add in provisions that restricted or avoided certain foods. This was especially the case amongst individuals who were considered to have low levels of self-control and low levels of success with dieting.

Additionally, low self-control individuals were more likely to think of foods that they really enjoyed when listing unhealthy foods that they should avoid. On the other hand, high self-control individuals were more likely to list foods that they liked, but ones that they could reasonably give up.

Low self-control participants were also most likely to think of foods they didn’t like when trying to create a list of healthy foods that they should eat, like Brussels sprouts. High self-control individuals were more likely to think of healthy foods that they also enjoyed eating, such as fruits like strawberries.

Focus on foods you enjoy

These findings show that consumers who have low self-control may be approaching dieting in the wrong way.

“In coming up with plans to enhance one’s health and well-being, low self-control individuals tend to set themselves up for a harder pathway to success by focusing on avoiding the very goods they find most tempting. . . Our data reveals that individuals who are generally more successful at reaching their goals tend to develop more motivating plans regarding the inclusion of healthy, well-liked items and the exclusion of unhealthy items that are not one’s favorites,” said David.

The researchers believe that more success could be achieved by dieters if they adopt plans that focus more on foods that they enjoy instead of focusing on what they will be missing out on.

“The next time you decide to go on a diet or seek to improve your health by altering your food consumption, opt for strategies that focus on including healthy foods in your diet, and focus specifically on those healthy foods that you really enjoy eating,” said David.

The full study has been published in the journal Psychology & Marketing.

What is the most important aspect of making a successful diet plan? Many people might say that it has to do with avoiding unhealthy foods and substituting ...

Eating disorder group appalled at new stomach-emptying device

Group calls device mechanized form of bulimia

Less than a month ago the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a medical device to help combat obesity.

Now the Academy for Eating Disorders (AED) accuses the agency of faulty judgment, saying the device should never have been approved because it enables purging, a practice associated with bulimia nervosa.

The device behind the controversy is called AspireAssist. A doctor places a thin tube in the patent's stomach. The tube is connected to a button the patent controls.

After a big meal, the patient uses a small device that pumps a third of the stomach contents into a toilet. The food is removed before it can be digested and contributes to body mass.

Bariatric surgery alternative

The FDA gave its blessing to AspireAssist as an alternative to bariatric surgery, in which metal bands are placed around the stomach to make it hold less. Apparently the regulators who flashed the green light could see little difference between the two methods, except that AspireAssist might be less invasive.

The Academy for Eating Disorders says there is a big difference, calling it “a mechanized form of bullimia nervosa.”

"Such a device may carry very serious physical and mental health consequences, including life-threatening situations, and should not be approved by the FDA,” said AED President Dr. Eva Trujillo.

She predicted the FDA action will proved to be “yet another in a long list of misguided, unsuccessful, and dangerous products for losing weight.”

“We need to stop subjecting people in larger bodies to unsafe procedures and insisting they are a problem to be fixed,” Trujillo said.

Calls for reversal

The group said the FDA should rescind its approval of AspireAssist, something that is rarely done.

Judging from the ConsumerAffairs readers who responded to our original story on the FDA approval in June, the public is siding with AED.

“I'm completely appalled by the idea of eating food and then pumping it directly into the toilet,” one reader posted. “I can only imagine what people who don't have access to adequate nutrition think of this. It's disgusting,” said one reader.

Less than a month ago the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a medical device to help combat obesity.Now the Academy for Eating Disorders (AED...

Research reveals how overeating leads to even more eating

A study shows that eating too much blocks a hormone that allows a person to feel full

Losing weight can be difficult for a number of different reasons. If you’re just starting out, it can be difficult to make certain necessary life changes, such as getting more sleep, exercising more, or eating smaller amounts.

Eating less, in particular, may be one of the more challenging adjustments to make because of how easy it might be to comfortably overeat. In fact, one new study has shown that eating too much in one sitting actually makes it easier to keep eating after a certain point.

Researchers have found that when the stomach senses too many calories, a certain hormone that makes you feel full is suppressed, enabling you to eat even more.

Cycle of overeating

The study, which was conducted by researchers at Thomas Jefferson University, actually began due to findings in earlier studies focusing on colon cancer. Researchers observed that uroguanylin, a hormone that sends signals to the brain to convey fullness, was present in non-obese mice, but it disappeared in models that were obese.

To investigate, researchers analyzed mice who were overfed and found that their small intestines stopped producing the hormone after a high number of calories were consumed. The receptors that were meant to receive those signals were still intact, they just weren’t getting any.

The researchers hypothesized that overeating was the cause of the disruption and set out to see if they could manipulate uroguanylin production. They found that when the mice were put on a diet, production of the hormone resumed.

“What’s interesting is that it didn’t matter whether the mice were lean and overfed, or obese and overfed – uroguanylin production stopped in both groups of animals when they got too many calories,” said Dr. Scott Waldman, one of the leaders of the study. “Here, it’s not the obese state that’s causing the problem but rather it’s the calories.”

Possible causes

While the researchers are not yet completely certain what causes uroguanylin to stop being produced, they strongly suspect that it has to do with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells in the small intestine. The ER produces many of the body’s proteins and hormones, but its function can be disrupted when it is stressed.

As a test, the researchers applied a chemical to the ER to stress it – a replication of what would happen if the mice were overfed. They observed that when the ER was stressed, it stopped producing uroguanylin. When another chemical was applied to de-stress the ER, production of the hormone went back to normal.

Implications for obesity

The researchers believe that this series of experiments show that high calorie consumption can stress the small intestines and cause people to stop feeling full after eating too much. However, what they don’t know is how important uroguanylin is in the grand scheme of obesity.

“Like in cancer, there are many steps on the way to becoming obese that aren’t easily reversed. While the uroguanylin hormone pathway appears to be one of those steps, we don’t yet know whether it’s important early on in the process, or later, and how much of a role it plays. But in combination with other approaches, hormone replacement of uroguanylin may become an important component of therapy to reverse obesity,” said Waldman.

The full study has been published in the journal Nutrition and Diabetes.

Losing weight can be difficult for a number of different reasons. If you’re just starting out, it can be difficult to make certain necessary life changes, ...

Weight-loss device pumps food out of your stomach

Patients who use the device lose an average of 46 pounds in one year

We all know that the way to lose, or at least control, weight is to eat less. That's easier said than done for most people. But a new treatment makes it possible to reverse your food intake ... literally.

It's called the AspireAssist system. It was recently approved by the FDA and is being presented as an alternative to bariatric surgery, which involves putting a band around the stomach to literally make it smaller and thus able to hold less food.

Instead of making your stomach smaller, AspireAssist basically gives food another way out. Here's how it works:

A doctor uses an endoscope to place a thin tube into your stomach.  The tube is connected to a small button on the outside. After each meal, you use a handheld device, about the size of a smartphone, that pumps a third of the meal out through a tube and into a nearby toilet. The procedure takes about five to ten minutes and removes the food before it can be absorbed by the stomach.

The manufacturer, Aspire Bariatrics, says that because only a third of the meal is removed, the body still receives the calories that it needs and you still get the full feeling that satisfies your hunger while shedding about a third of the calories that would otherwise be ingested.

46 pounds

AspireAssist is intended for use by adults with a Body Mass Index of 35 to 55 for whom more conservative weight loss therapies haven’t worked. (The Centers for Disease Control considers a BMI of 30 or higher to be “obese”).  The company says its studies show patients lost an average of 46 pounds after using the system for a year.

The manufacturer says its device is implanted in a 15-minute outpatient procedure, which is fully reversible and doesn’t alter your internal anatomy. The system is intended for long-term use and is designed to be used in conjunction with diet, exercise counseling, and close medical monitoring.

“With less than 1% of the 25 million Americans with BMIs over 35, availing themselves of bariatric surgery each year, there is clearly a need for a non-surgical weight loss procedure that is effective, safe, and reversible,” says Dr. Christopher Thompsoon of the Harvard Medical School.   “AspireAssist therapy satisfies this need and additionally offers a lower cost solution to the healthcare system.”

The device should not be used by people with eating disorders. 

Photo (c) Aspire BariatricsWe all know that the way to lose, or at least control, weight is to eat less. That's easier said than done for most people...

Portion control: is it the key to weight loss?

California researchers say this simple concept seems to work

Amid all the fad diets and weight control programs, there is one very simple way to lose weight: eat less.

Easier said than done, however. Over the years, the portion sizes consumers expect – and get – have gotten significantly larger. That might be fine for a portion of steamed broccoli, less fine for a portion of meatloaf.

When you look on a food nutrition label, it will tell you how many servings the product contains. But once on a plate, chances are the serving will look pretty small to some consumers who are accustomed to larger portions. Sticking to the serving size, however, could make it easier to lose or maintain weight.

Prepackaged portions

New research published in the scientific journal Obesity has confirmed what diet product companies have long known – when you package food in small, controllable portions, it is easier to lose weight.

“Participants who were prescribed twice-daily prepackaged meals lost about 8% of their initial weight, compared to participants in the control group – who could select their own diets – who only lost about 6%,” said lead researcher Cheryl Rock, of the University of California San Diego School of Medicine.

The real key, she says, is removing the guesswork involved in planning and preparing low-calorie meals.

It all sounds simple enough, but Martin Binks, a spokesperson for The Obesity Society, says it may be hard for someone who is overweight or obese to put it into practice. He notes that it is important to reduce the body's energy intake for weight loss, but a body accustomed to large amounts of energy will crave it when it's denied. Still, he notes this strategy is a step toward reducing obesity.

Encouraging trend

According to research published in Food Technologists magazine, consumers may be slowly moving away from giant-sized portions. Among the trends uncovered by the research, there was a conscious shift to smaller portion sizes reported by one-third of the consumers in the survey.

Many restaurants, however, still serve up huge portions – more than a human being should eat in a day, in some cases. The reason is competition. Restaurants know consumers can choose to dine out anywhere. They conclude that their chances are better of attracting consumers if they provide a generous spread – and in many cases, they are correct.

Food products that come in prepackaged portions are an easy way to both control portion size and keep track of calories. The downside is these meals often contain large amounts of sodium. A steady diet might expose you to excessive amounts of salt.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) offers a number of tips for controlling portions when cooking from scratch, including using smaller plates and cups and sticking to suggested serving sizes. If you're still hungry, eat more vegetables but skip dessert.

Amid all the fad diets and weight control programs, there is one very simple way to lose weight: eat less.Easier said than done, however. Over the year...

Study: artificial sweeteners may have negative health effect for obese consumers

Researchers suggest some can interfere with glucose management

Artificial sweeteners have come a long way over the years, now closely mimicking natural sweeteners but without the calories.

The sweeteners are effective tools to help obese consumers reduce calorie consumption, but researchers at York University's Faculty of Health say that weight management may come at a price.

"Our study shows that individuals with obesity who consume artificial sweeteners, particularly aspartame, may have worse glucose management than those who don't take sugar substitutes," Professor Jennifer Kuk, obesity researcher in the School of Kinesiology and Health Science, said in a release.

Artificial sweeteners lack caloric content because they are not digested by the body. If they can make food taste better without adding calories, it can help consumers manage their weight. But the York University study found that in some cases, bacteria in the stomach may be able to break down the artificial sweetener. When that happens, researchers say there can be negative effects on health.

No adverse effect from saccharin

Kuk said the research team didn't find this adverse effect in people consuming saccharin – an early artificial sweetener – or natural sugars. The findings, however, left them with more questions than answers.

"We will need to do future studies to determine whether any potentially negative health effects of artificial sweeteners outweigh the benefits for obesity reduction," Luk said.

This is hardly the first research to suggest there could be some downside to using food and beverage products containing artificial sweeteners. A 2008 study by psychologists at Purdue University found that compared with rats that ate yogurt sweetened with sugar, rats given yogurt sweetened with zero-calorie saccharin later consumed more calories, gained more weight, put on more body fat, and didn't make up for it by cutting back later.

Later that same year a Duke University study that focused on the artificial sweetener Splenda concluded the product contributes to obesity, destroys beneficial intestinal bacteria, and could even interfere with absorption of prescription drugs.

Pepsi dumps aspartame

Last year Pepsi announced it would remove aspartame from its beverages sold in the U.S., reacting to research that suggests the artificial sweetener – while not imparting calories – might creating sugar cravings among people who consume too much, thus negating the benefits of a no-calorie beverage.

Today, food manufacturers have many options when it comes to new sugar substitutes. The York researchers says more investigation should be carried out to determine if there are any health effects of using these sweeteners.

Artificial sweeteners have come a long way over the years, now closely mimicking natural sweeteners but without the calories.The sweeteners are effecti...

Eating healthy, not just lower calories, a challenge when eating out

The healthier choice isn't always obvious

Most restaurant meals are designed to be filling and satisfying. That, after all, is how restaurants fill tables.

For that reason, restaurant meals tend to be high in calories and filled with good-tasting ingredients that might not be all that healthy.

For those trying to eat a healthier diet, choosing a restaurant can be a frustrating process. The healthier choice might not be obvious at first glance.

For example, researchers at the University of South Carolina say the caloric content of fast casual restaurants like Chipotle and Panera Bread is often higher than at fast food outlets like McDonald's and Burger King, even though the latter has a reputation for calorie-laden meals.

200 more calories

Their findings, written up in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, reports an average fast casual meal has 200 more calories than a typical fast food meal. When it comes to menus, the study found more high-calorie options at fast casual establishments than the fast food restaurants.

"We were surprised that there were higher calories at fast casual restaurants, but one of the main takeaways from the paper is that there are a lot of high-calorie options at both kinds of restaurants," said lead researcher Danielle Schoffman.

The South Carolina study reached much the same conclusion as one at Tufts University in January. That study, which focused on fast casual and independent restaurants, found 92% of the 364 measured restaurant meals from both categories had more calories than the recommended number for a single meal.

In a third of the restaurants, at least one meal on the menu packed more calories than a person should consume in a single 24-hour period.

What to do

If you are maintaining a healthy diet at home, is it possible to eat in a restaurant without packing on the pounds? Most nutritionists will tell you that one restaurant meal will not kill a diet, and a treat every once in a while might not be a bad thing.

It becomes a problem when restaurant meals are a staple of your weekly diet. For example, traveling for an extended period will require you to exercise some discretion and self-control.

For starters, choose restaurants that post calorie information on the menu, and use that information when choosing what to order. Some fast casual chains, like Applebees, highlight items on the menu that have fewer calories and less saturated fat.

Also, use common sense when selecting food. Weigh calories against nutritional content. Researcher Brie Turner-McGrievy says that sometimes the higher calorie meal is the better choice if it is more nutritious.

"A burger on a white bun may have fewer calories, but when you're talking about cancer prevention or other chronic diseases, you have to look beyond calories," Turner-McGrievy said. "We don't want the message to be, 'Go eat hamburgers and don't eat guacamole and beans and brown rice.' "

Most restaurant meals are designed to be filling and satisfying. That, after all, is how restaurants fill tables.For that reason, restaurant meals tend...

Study shows that making small changes can be crucial to maintaining weight for young adults

Altering your diet and level of physical activity can make all the difference

A new study shows that making small dietary and physical activity changes, at the very least, can have a big impact on weight management for young adults.

Researchers funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute tracked the weight changes of a large group of individuals between the ages of 18 and 34 over the course of two to three years. They found that those who actively made small or large changes to their diet and physical activity were much more likely to lose or maintain weight, while those who were left to their own devices actually gained weight or became obese.

Making changes

The study was made up of 599 participants; half of these individuals were considered to be at a normal weight and the other half were overweight. All participants were asked to weigh themselves frequently and track any changes, but different groups of people were asked to do more with the information they gathered.

In the “small change” group, individuals were asked to track their weight and then make small lifestyle changes if they noticed any weight gain. These actions could involve small alterations to their diet or increasing physical activity – for example, making portions smaller at meals and electing to take the stairs instead of an elevator.

Another group, called the “large change” group, was asked to initially lose 5-10 pounds and then work towards maintaining that weight loss. Like the small change group, this could include anything from dieting changes to increasing exercise.

The control group of the study was asked to track their weight, but they were given a minimal amount of instruction about what to do with that information.

Crucial time of life

When the study period was over, researchers observed that members of the small change and large change groups were much more successful at preventing weight gain than the control group. The small change group averaged a weight loss of 1.2 pounds, while those in the large change group lost an average of 5.2 pounds over two to three years.

Those in the control group tended to drift in the opposite direction. By the end of the study, participants in this group gained half a pound on average; 20% of these participants became obese, while only 8% were able to maintain their weight.

The researchers believe that these results underscore the importance of making dietary and physical activity changes for young adults. They posit that maintaining a healthy weight during this time period is crucial because it is usually when a person puts on the most excess weight in their lifetime.

Additionally, the researchers believe that making these changes at this stage of life may help pass on healthy habits to younger generations, allow individuals to avoid obesity, and make it easier to manage weight when consumers get older.

The full study has been published in JAMA Internal Medicine

A new study shows that making small dietary and physical activity changes, at the very least, can have a big impact on weight management for young adults....

Study finds why Biggest Loser contestants regain the weight

Significant weight loss found to slow rate at which the body burns calories

The NBC reality series “The Biggest Loser” has been an inspiration to many obese people. They have watched as contestants embraced a supervised, on-camera lifestyle transition to a healthy diet and exercise.

Even the contestants who didn't win went home happy, with slimmer, lighter bodies. But a team of U.S. researchers wondered what happened next? Did the feel-good story continue, off-camera? In most cases, it did not.

The researchers investigated 16 of the show's contestants, 14 of whom participated in the follow-up study. All but one gained back some of the weight. Four regained everything they lost, and then some.

The study found the 14 participants lost an average of about 128 pounds, regaining about 90 pounds over six years.

Looking for 'why?'

But that wasn't the point of the study – the researchers suspected they might find some regained weight, since that often happens to dieters. The real question they wanted to answer was “why.”

The “why” appears to center on changes to metabolism, which is kind of like your body's miles-per-gallon (MPG) rating. You want your body to have the MPG of a Hummer, not a Prius.

In their study, the researchers determined that the dramatic weight loss altered the body's metabolism, the rate at which it burns calories. As subjects dropped pounds, the body slowed the rate at which it burned calories. They call it metabolic adaptation.

Using before and after data for the contestants, the researchers found their resting metabolic rate (RMR) slowed in the years following the show.

The researchers said their study, supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is probably the longest follow-up investigation of the changes in metabolic adaptation and body composition following weight loss and regain.

Suppressed RMR

“We found that despite substantial weight regain in the six years following participation in 'The Biggest Loser,' RMR remained suppressed at the same average level as at the end of the weight loss competition,” the authors wrote.

They found mean RMR after six years was about 500 calories a day lower than expected, based on the measured body composition changes and the increased age of the subjects. The contestants who lost the most weight, they said, also experienced the greatest slowdown in RMR at that time.

Those most successful in keeping the lost weight off after six years also experienced greater ongoing metabolic slowing.

“Metabolic adaptation persists over time and is likely a proportional, but incomplete, response to contemporaneous efforts to reduce body weight,” the study concludes.

The takeaway

The takeaway, however, is not that obese people should not try to lose weight and adopt a healthier lifestyle, far from it. Rather, it's an acknowledgment of the physical obstacles your body can throw up to maintaining the weight loss.

Despite their weight regain, the contestants were “quite successful” at long-term weight loss compared with other lifestyle interventions, the study found. The researchers also found that those who experienced the biggest metabolic change did not experience the greatest weight regain and those who were most successful in keeping the weight off had pretty much the same metabolic slowdown.

So the lesson, the researchers say, is “long-term weight loss requires vigilant combat against persistent metabolic adaptation that acts to proportionally counter ongoing efforts to reduce body weight.”

It should be noted that participants in “The Biggest Loser” all had close medical monitoring during the show. You should not undertake any sort of significant weight loss effort without consulting a doctor first.  

The NBC reality series “The Biggest Loser” has been an inspiration to many obese people. They have watched as contestants embraced a supervised, on-camera ...

Research shows that maintaining weight loss gets easier over time

One study shows that the human body adapts to weight change after a year

Losing weight can be a difficult enough challenge as it is, but being able to maintain that weight loss over time can be even more daunting. It is often very difficult for the body to adapt to new lifestyle changes like increased exercise and dieting; however, new research shows that there is a measurable timeframe, after which the body will adjust and accept the changes.

Researchers at the University of Copenhagen conducted a study on obesity and weight loss and found that if a person can lose weight and keep it off for a year, then the body will accept the change.

“This study shows that if an overweight person is able to maintain an initial weight loss – in this case for a year – the body will eventually ‘accept’ this new weight and thus not fight against it, as is otherwise normally the case when you are in a calorie-deficit state,” said Signe Sorensen Torekov, associate professor with the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research.

Adapting to change

But what exactly changes over the course of a year that allows the body to accept its new weight? Researchers concluded that the change is primarily hormonal, specifically with two appetite-inhibiting hormones called GLP-1 and PYY.

Normally, when someone first begins to lose weight, a hormone called ghrelin spikes up and causes hunger; it’s the body’s way of reacting to the changes. GLP-1 and PYY levels are usually pretty low at this point. However, after a year of maintaining this weight loss, researchers found that GLP-1 and PYY levels actually get higher and ghrelin stays at normal levels; this translates to a person not feeling as hungry anymore, which, in turn, makes it easier to keep weight off.

Obese people, in particular, have very low GLP-1 levels, but improvements can be made if they try to adhere to a healthier lifestyle.

“We know that obese people have low levels of the appetite inhibiting hormone GLP-1. The good thing is that now we are able to show you can actually increase the levels of this hormone as well as the appetite inhibiting hormone PYY by weight loss and that the levels are kept high (=increased appetite inhibition) when you maintain your weight loss for a year,” said Eva Winning Iepsen, first author of the study.

Encouraging news

This research comes as good news to consumers who may be struggling to maintain their weight loss. Although it may be difficult for some time, the study shows that there will come a point when things get easier.

“The interesting and uplifting news in this study is that if you are able to maintain your weight loss for a longer period of time, it seems as if you have ‘passed the critical point’, and after this point, it will actually become easier for you to maintain your weight loss than [it] was immediately after the initial weight loss. . . Thus, the body is no longer fighting against you, but actually with you, which is good news for anyone trying to lose weight,” says Torekov.

The full study has been published in the European Journal of Endocrinology

Losing weight can be a difficult enough challenge as it is, but being able to maintain that weight loss over time can be even more daunting. It is often ve...

It's true, a high-protein diet will make you feel fuller

But it is important to choose your protein carefully

New research has confirmed the long-held belief that a diet rich in protein makes you feel more full and less prone to over-eat.

Purdue University researchers said they were surprised when they discovered there really had never been any empirical research to back up this belief. Their study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics reviews the evidence on the effect of protein intake on perceived fullness and confirmed that protein does, in fact, make us feel fuller.

"A good deal of evidence suggests that protein activates satiety hormone release and so should be most strongly tied with fullness ratings," lead investigator Richard Mattes said in a statement.

But Mattes says individual studies are often conducted in small populations or with different approaches that can make interpretation of results problematic. The Purdue study combined multiple experiments to confirm the presence of an effect.

Low-carb diet

A high-protein diet is often associated with a low carb diet – such as the Atkins diet. Even though protein usually contains higher levels of fat, you tend to eat less of it. Dieters may feel fuller after eating protein, even if their overall calorie consumption is lower.

The research team used a variety of statistical approaches to make sense of the data. Each approach, the scientists said, pointed to the same conclusion; higher protein loads have a greater effect on fullness than lower ones.

If you decide to consider a high-protein diet, you should first consult your healthcare provider. Not all protein is the same and a protein-rich diet might not be best for everyone.

Jury out on long-term effects

However, the Mayo Clinic advises that a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful for most healthy people, especially if you are on it for a short time. Such diets may help with weight loss by making you feel fuller. The Clinic staff says the potential risks of a high-protein diet with carbohydrate restriction for the long term are still under study.

A healthy and successful high protein diet, the Clinic says, all depends on the foods in that diet. It says good choices include soy protein, beans, nuts, fish, skinless poultry, lean beef, pork, and low-fat dairy products. Avoid processed meats, it says.

And even though they confirmed that protein consumption makes you feel full, the researchers caution that a protein-rich diet won't work miracles.

"Feelings like hunger and fullness are not the only factors that influence intake,” Mattes said. “We often eat for other reasons. Anyone who has ever felt too full to finish their meal but has room for dessert knows this all too well." 

New research has confirmed the long-held belief that a diet rich in protein makes you feel more full and less prone to over-eat.Purdue University resea...

Cornell researchers say counting calories not necessary to lose weight

Instead, they found simple behaviors are key to healthy weight

Federal law now requires most fast food restaurants to post calorie information on menus, but it you're trying to lose weight by cutting calories, Cornell University researchers say you're off base.

Instead, they suggest simple, routine behaviors may be your key to losing or maintaining a healthy weight.

To explain what they mean, Cornell Food and Brand Lab researchers developed an online Global Healthy Weight Registry. People who had already achieved a healthy weight were asked to sign up and then answer questions about their diet, exercise, and daily routines.

That became the focus of scientific analysis, which zeroed in on some common routine behaviors of those who stay healthy and slim.

How they do it

For example, the analysis determined that 96% of the people ate breakfast every day and 42% exercised five or more times a week. At least half said they weighed themselves at least once a week.

What they didn't do, by and large, was go on diets.

Although 74% never or rarely dieted, 92% of the people in the registry said they were generally conscious of what they ate. As part of their healthy habits that lead to weight control, 44% reported at least one non-restrictive strategy, such as listening to inner cues, cooking at home, and eating high-quality, non-processed foods.

"Most slim people don't employ restrictive diets or intense health regimes to stay at a healthy weight,” study co-author Brian Wansink said in a release. “Instead, they practice easy habits like not skipping breakfast, and listening to inner cues. If you struggle with weight, try adding these simple practices to your routine, you may be surprised how easy it is to be healthy!"

What you eat, not necessarily how much

While there have been studies showing calorie restriction provides health benefits in other areas, many nutritionists stress the importance of eating a healthy diet, not necessarily a small one.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends a diet rich in nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. It also says a healthy diet is made up of fruits and vegetables, whole grains -- like oatmeal, whole-wheat bread, and brown rice -- seafood, lean meats, poultry, and eggs.

Last year, the U.S. government updated its Dietary Guidelines For Americans. You'll find them here.

Federal law now requires most fast food restaurants to post calorie information on menus, but it you're trying to lose weight by cutting calories, Cornell ...

Study: restaurants, not just fast-food, are driving obesity

Researchers find many meals exceed daily recommended calorie requirement

When it comes to pointing fingers of blame for the obesity epidemic, fast-food restaurants get a lot of attention.

Yes, a triple bacon cheeseburger served with a large order of fries will pack on the pounds if that happens to be a staple of your diet. But researchers say fast-food restaurant meals really aren't any more fattening than those served at casual chain and independent restaurants.

Their study in the Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics found 92% of the 364 measured restaurant meals from both large-chain and independent restaurants had more calories than the recommended number for a single meal.

In 123 restaurants in three cities across America, there was at least one meal on the menu that, without beverages, appetizers, or desserts, exceeded the number of calories a person should consume in a single day.

Clueless about calories

While fast-food restaurants post on menus the number of calories each item has, most other restaurants don't. So consumers often are clueless to the number of calories they're swallowing.

Senior author Susan B. Roberts, of Tufts University, says consumers over-eat at restaurants because it tastes good and the portions are huge. She says it simply overwhelms most people's self-control.

“Although fast-food restaurants are often the easiest targets for criticism because they provide information on their portion sizes and calories, small restaurants typically provide just as many calories, and sometimes more,” Roberts said. “Favorite meals often contain three or even four times the amount of calories a person needs, and although in theory we don’t have to eat the whole lot in practice most of us don’t have enough willpower to stop eating when we have had enough.”

The researchers studied the meals served at restaurants in Boston, San Francisco, and Little Rock, Ark. The data was collected between 2011 and 2014 by comparing the meals against human calorie requirements and USDA food database values.

The study looked at all types of meals, not just burgers and fries. The fare included American, Chinese, Greek, Indian, Italian, Japanese, Mexican, Thai, and Vietnamese.

The highest caloric content was found at American, Chinese, and Italian restaurants, where the mean calorie count per meal tipped the scales at 1,495 calories.

Portion size

Part of the problem is portion size. With so many restaurants competing with one another, it has become an article of faith that serving sizes must be huge in order to fill tables.

“Standard meals are sized for the hungriest customers, so most people need superhuman self-control to avoid overeating,” said co-author William Masters.

Since women generally have a lower daily requirement than men, Masters says restaurant meals post a particular hazard for women trying to watch their weight.

What's the solution? The research team has concluded one answer is empowering customers to order partial portions at partial prices.

That, Masters says, would ultimately lead restaurants to adjust their normal serving size toward what the average customer wants, rather than the hungriest person.  

When it comes to pointing fingers of blame for the obesity epidemic, fast-food restaurants get a lot of attention.Yes, a triple bacon cheeseburger serv...

Non-profit once funded by Coke goes out of business

Argued that lack of exercise was a main driver of obesity

The Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN), a non-profit that once counted Coca-Cola among its major financial benefactors, has closed its doors.

The official announcement appears on the group's website, saying it is halting operations immediately, due to “resource limitations.”

Coke's relationship with GEBN was highly controversial, especially since critics charged it lacked transparency. The fact that GEBN encouraged exercise over calorie intake as the major obesity-reducing tool prompted The New York Times to look into the group and its ties to the soft drink company.

Story broke in August

In August, The Times reported that Coke had funneled money to industry-friendly researchers. It specifically cited Coke's role in setting up GEBN to investigate the role of calorie consumption vs. lack of exercise in obesity.

It prompted Michael Jacobson, executive director of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, to call on university-based research organizations to sever their ties to the group.

The Times cited an analysis published in PLOS Medicine that found studies financed by Coke and other beverage companies were five times more likely to find no link between consumption of sugary drinks and weight gain.

Emails surface

Just last week, the news got worse for GEBN. The Associated Press reported on its analysis of emails between James Hill, GEBN's president, and a Colorado med school professor, and Rhona Applebaum, the chief health and science officer for Coca-Cola. The emails suggest Coke played a key role in shaping GEBN's research.

After the initial Times story broke, Coke defended itself, saying its financial support in no way influenced the outcome of GEBN-funded research. Researchers, it said in September, have full control of the study design and execution and the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data.

“Under no circumstances does The Coca-Cola Company have the right to prevent the publication of research results; nor does the company provide funding conditioned on the outcome of the research,” the company statement concluded.

Food and beverage companies – fairly or unfairly – have become a focus of the obesity debate. While food companies point to increasingly sedentary lifestyles as the root of the problem, most nutritionists suggest calorie consumption is a main driver of obesity.

The Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN), a non-profit that once counted Coca-Cola among its major financial benefactors, has closed its doors.The offi...

10 ways to avoid holiday weight gain

Dietitian offers tips for avoiding extra pounds between now and New Years Day

It's a sad fact. Just as retailers make most of their profit for the year around the holidays, that's also when most of us put on a few extra pounds.

But it doesn't have to be that way.

Just by following a few simple rules you can enjoy the holidays without gaining weight. Vanderbilt University Medical Center dietitian and certified personal trainer Jessica Bennett says you can even sit down to large family dinners and attend holiday parties.

“It’s a good idea to eat in a healthy way all year-round, but for a lot of people it’s especially challenging during the holidays,” Bennett said. “Fortunately, with a little planning and thought, it’s possible to have a good time, eat well, and still maintain a steady weight through the holidays.”

Rules to live by

Bennett offers up 10 tips for avoiding holiday weight gain:

  1. Don’t skip meals before a party or family dinner—the “saving to splurge” strategy doesn’t usually work in the end. If you go into a feast hungry, you can do some damage.
  2. Avoid going to a party hungry—have a snack, such as an apple or a handful of nuts. Denting your appetite won't dampen your enjoyment but just might prevent you from over-indulging.
  3. At a party or buffet, assess all the food options first and take small servings of food that you really want. Don’t just load up on whatever is there.
  4. Taste foods before adding salt—most foods already have plenty of salt. Besides, most Americans get all the salt they need – maybe even more – from their normal diet. Seasonal goodies, unfortunately, are usually loaded with both sugar and sodium.
  5. Choose a smaller plate if you have a choice. This is a dieter's trick that has been shown to work. If you fill a small plate, you are likely to feel just as full as if you loaded up a regular dinner plate.
  6. Avoid eating standing up. For some reason, it’s a lot harder to keep track of how much you’ve eaten while on your feet and moving around.
  7. Make it a point to eat slowly – even put your fork down between bites. The slower you eat, the less you eat.
  8. Watch out for high-calorie beverages. A good way to do this is have water or sparkling water between drinks, and also to dilute juices with water. Remember, a glass of wine and a small cocktail have at least 100 calories.
  9. Don’t think you have to eat all the leftovers yourself; share them with family and friends.
  10. The day of a party or family meal, make it a priority to do something active. Whether you go to the gym or take a two mile walk, some exercise will not only make you feel better, but help compensate for a little holiday indulgence.  
It's a sad fact. Just as retailers make most of their profit for the year around the holidays, that's also when most of us put on a few extra pounds.Bu...

Fewer Americans say they want to lose weight

Gallup finds more Americans are happy with their current weight

For the first time in at least 25 years, fewer than half of Americans say they want to lose weight, according to Gallup. During the period from 2001 to 2008, nearly 60% of us wanted to shed excess poundage, Gallup's annual Health and Healthcare poll found. 

Not only that, but an increasing percentage of us, currently 41%, say our present weight is just fine, thanks. This may sound like wishful thinking, but, as part of the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, Gallup calculates Americans' body mass index scores based on respondents' self-reported height and weight. The obesity rate ticked up to 27.7% in 2014, the highest rate recorded since Gallup and Healthways began tracking it in 2008. 

In addition to being less likely to say they want to lose weight in recent years, fewer Americans say they are making a concerted effort to do so. Less than a quarter of adults (24%) report they are "seriously trying to lose weight." This is the lowest reading since 2002, though it is similar to the 25% to 30% of adults who said they were "seriously" trying from 2003 through 2014.

When asked to describe their weight, 37% say they are "very" or "somewhat overweight." This has generally declined since 1990, when about half of adults (48%) said they were overweight. Meanwhile, 5% say they are "very" or "somewhat underweight."

Americans, however, are most likely to describe their weight as "about right" (56%) -- consistent with readings since 2009. From 1990 to 2008, this figure was in a lower range, from 46% to 54%.

The overwhelming majority of those who say they are overweight also report wanting to lose weight. Over the past decade, between 90% and 96% of those who describe themselves as overweight have said they wanted to drop some pounds. This suggests that the decline in the percentage of Americans wanting to lose weight is more attributable to fewer people saying they are overweight than to overweight people being less likely to say they want to lose weight.

For the first time in at least 25 years, fewer than half of Americans say they want to lose weight, according to Gallup. Dur...

Emails cast pall over Coke-funded research on obesity

Correspondences reveal that the company was much more involved with a scientific group that was doing the research

A few months ago, we reported on how Coca-Cola was responding to criticism of its research funding. Basically, the company had come under fire for bankrolling studies that showed that obesity was mainly caused by sedentary lifestyle choices and not by the amount of calories a person consumed.

The company even went so far as to launch a website to explain its research funding (i.e. where it was spending its money and how much). Coca-cola defended its funding of groups like the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN), saying that “our engagement and financial support of these well-respected experts, institutions and organizations were made with the best of intentions – to inform our business, support our local communities and support solutions to the public health issues facing people across the United States and around the world.”

Well, it seems that this patronage may not have been so well-intentioned after all. Emails uncovered by the Associated Press (AP) appear to show that the research done by GEBN was heavily influenced by its relationship with Coca-Cola.

Extensive involvement

The emails that the AP exposed show correspondence between James Hill, GEBN president and a Colorado med school professor, and Rhona Applebaum, the chief health and science officer for Coca-Cola. John Peters, another leader at GEBN, is also included in some of the emails.

The emails show that Coca-Cola funded GEBN research so that they could stress how important diet and exercise are – but they also wanted the blame shifted off of their company. In October of 2012, Hill received an email from Applebaum saying that they would be sending a “stimulus package” to GEBN. She says those working on the project will need to be open about collaboration with private industry and that this collaboration is “non-negotiable.”

In November of 2012, Applebaum emailed Hill and Peters about questions the media had been asking about the Coke-funded study. She offers the two GEBN leaders media training as well, stating that “all our folks receive it.”

In July of 2014, Applebaum compares the GEBN research to a political campaign. “We will develop, deploy and evolve a powerful and multi-facted strategy to counter radical organizations and their proponents,” she said. She later states that the company's hope was to make GEBN “the place the media goes to for comment on any obesity issue.”

Emails were sent back and forth between Applebaum, Hill, and Peters well into 2015. A description of each can be found here.

Importance of impartiality

This level of involvement with GEBN shows that Coca-cola was much more involved in the group's research than simply sending them money. It was not just a one-way street either; GEBN showed that it supported Coca-cola as well.

“It is not fair that Coca-Cola is signaled out as the #1 villain in the obesity world, but that is the situation and makes this your issue whether you like it or not . . . I want to help your company avoid the image of being a problem in peoples' lives and back to a being a company that brings important and fun things to them,” wrote Hill in an email to a Coke executive.

A basic tenet of scientific rsearch is that it should remain impartial and that finds should not be “influenced by particular perspectives, value commitments, community bias or personal interests,” as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy puts it. 

A few months ago, we reported on how Coca-Cola was responding to criticism of its research funding. Basically, the company had come under fire for bankroll...

Study suggests weight-loss surgery effective for adolescents

Subjects lost an average of 90 pounds three years after surgery

Bariatric surgery, a procedure to reduce the size of the stomach, has become safer and more effective since it was introduced.

Recent studies have shown it has helped severely obese adults lose weight and keep it off, reducing the risk of obesity-related diseases.

Now, new research suggests it can do the same for severely obese children.

The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, is the largest analysis of bariatric results in adolescents, according to its authors. It followed 242 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 – all severely obese with an average weight of 325 pounds before surgery.

Previous studies have found only 2% of severely obese teenagers can lose weight and keep it off without surgery. This study found that three years after surgery, average weight had decreased by over 90 pounds, or 27%.

Most participants also had reversal of a number of important obesity-related health problems, including type-2 diabetes.

Meaningful weight-loss

"This study shows that at three years, almost 90% experienced clinically meaningful weight loss, and participants were in better health, with improved quality of life scores," said Dr. Thomas Inge, lead author of the study.

The investigators also found the young patients who had the surgery lost weight faster and recovered from obesity-related health problems better than adults who had the same surgery.

Reversal of type-2 diabetes was seen in 95% of the adolescent subjects and normalization of kidney function was seen in 86%. High blood pressure levels corrected in 74%, and lipid abnormalities reversed in 66%.

“It is possible that earlier intervention could lead to better outcomes," said Inge. "If sustained, the improvements seen in weight, blood sugar, kidney function, blood pressure, and lipid levels may translate into fewer strokes, heart attacks and other disabilities later in life."

Downside risks

There were some nutritional and other risks associated with the surgery. The researchers found that post-surgery, more than half the subjects had an iron deficiency after three years when only 5% were deficient before surgery.

In addition, 13% of patients required additional abdominal surgery, most commonly gallbladder removal, during the three-year period.

"We are also learning that once teens have crossed into these extremes of obesity, only 25% of them can achieve weights in the normal range after surgery, and over half of them remain severely obese even after surgery," said Dr. Michael Helmrath, a study co-author and adolescent bariatric surgeon at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. "Timing of surgery may prove important."

In other words, bariatric surgery isn't a magic bullet. But the only magic bullet we've found so far is to prevent kids from becoming obese in the first place.

Bariatric surgery, a procedure to reduce the size of the stomach, has become safer and more effective since it was introduced.Recent studies have shown...

Why you may have a hard time losing weight

Choosing a diet beverage may work against you

Those of us who could stand to shed a few pounds naturally gravitate to diet soda, water, or unsweetened tea – beverages with no calories.

It seems like a no brainer. Replace a beverage with calories for one without them and you can easily reduce your daily caloric intake. So, why isn't it working?

Nutritionists will tell you that you should eat a balanced, nutritious diet containing fewer calories than you burn if you want to lose weight. Food loaded with fiber will help because it makes you feel full.

Beverages are an often-overlooked source of calories, so being aware of those calories, and avoiding them by drinking diet beverages, might seem like a smart strategy. And it is, if you can avoid making up for those calories elsewhere.

There's the rub

Ruopeng An, a professor at the University of Illinois, says that tends to happen quite a bit. He reached that conclusion after conducting a major study in which he examined the dietary habits of more than 22,000 people.

He put together a list of 661 items of what he calls “discretionary foods,” things you won't find on any nutritionist's list of recommended foods. We're talking about cookies, ice cream, French fries, and the like.

Not surprisingly An found more than 90% of the people in the study consumed discretionary foods every day, averaging about 482 calories from these products daily.

An's study is a little different from previous dietary research that has focused on between-meal snacking's contribution to weight gain. But An says it's not so important when you eat as what you eat. And here's where the beverage correlation comes in.


An found that people who drink coffee and diet-beverages do, in fact, consume fewer total calories each day than people who drink a lot of alcohol or high-calorie sugary drinks. But they also get a greater percentage of their daily calorie intake from unhealthy discretionary foods.

An believes that suggests people who aren't getting calories from beverages – and are aware of that calorie savings – are more likely to compensate by “treating” themselves to discretionary food with little or no nutritional value but with a lot of empty calories.

"It may be that people who consume diet beverages feel justified in eating more, so they reach for a muffin or a bag of chips," An said. "Or perhaps, in order to feel satisfied, they feel compelled to eat more of these high-calorie foods."

Processed food

As we reported earlier this year, Stacey Cahn, an associate professor of psychology at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, has also studied why people gain weight and she also leans toward the discretionary food theory, only in her case she narrows it down to processed food.

Cahn says eating processed food makes it much harder to control your food cravings and that it's no accident. She points out food manufacturers have invested billions of dollars in making their products almost impossible to resist. It's just “good business” on their part, she says.

“Research shows that we’re much more likely to overeat processed foods than 'whole foods,'” Cahn said. “Snack foods that have an airy, crispy texture like cheese puffs leave us particularly prone to overeating because of vanishing caloric density. As the snack somewhat dissolves on our tongues, our bodies don’t register those fat calories, so we still feel hungry, and we keep eating.”

Does all this mean you should not be concerned with your beverage choices? Not at all. It's just more important to choose healthy, nutritious food to go with those beverages.

Those of us who could stand to shed a few pounds naturally gravitate to diet soda, water, or unsweetened tea – beverages with no calories.It seems like...

Coke responds to criticism of its obesity research funding

Company CEO vows more transparency

Coca-cola took a lot of heat when it was revealed that it bankrolled studies that showed obesity was largely the result of sedentary lifestyles and not over-consumption of calories.

Critics pounced, pointing out that there were scores of other studies – not funded by an interested stakeholder – that showed just the opposite. In fact, this week we reported on the conclusions of two Loyola University Chicago researchers who say categorically, exercise doesn't help you lose weight.

Mea culpa

Coca-Cola CEO Muhtar Kent, in an op-ed in The Wall Street Journal, says the way his company has tried to engage the public health and scientific communities on the issue of obesity “isn't working.”

“Our company has been accused of shifting the debate to suggest that physical activity is the only solution to the obesity crisis,” Kent wrote. “There also have been reports accusing us of deceiving the public about our support of scientific research.”

Kent says that's not what Coke was trying to do, but vows that the company will do better.

“By supporting research and nonprofit organizations, we seek to foster more science-based knowledge to better inform the debate about how best to deal with the obesity epidemic,” Kent wrote. “We have never attempted to hide that. However, in the future we will act with even more transparency as we refocus our investments and our efforts on well-being.”

The New York Times reported last week that Coke has funneled money to industry-friendly researchers. It specifically cites Coke's role in setting up the nonprofit Global Energy Balance Network to investigate the role of calorie consumption vs. lack of exercise in obesity. Michael Jacobson, executive director of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, says university-based research organizations should sever their ties to the group.

Impartiality in question

“A good first step would be for the schools to comply with the request of Senator Richard Blumenthal to publicly disclose all of their grant arrangements with Coca-Cola and ensure that research on their campuses will be unbiased and unbought, impartial and objective,” Jacobson said in a statement.

The Times cites an analysis published in PLOS Medicine that found studies financed by Coke and other beverage companies were five times more likely to find no link between consumption of sugary drinks and weight gain.

In his op-ed, Kent says Coke will provide smaller portions and increase efforts to promote calorie-free alternatives. In addition, he outlined three steps he said the company would take:

  • Publish on our website a list of our efforts to reduce calories and market responsibly, along with a list of health and well-being partnerships and research activities we have funded in the past five years, which we will continue to update every six months.
  • Charter and recruit an oversight committee of independent experts to advise and provide governance on company investments in academic research.
  • Engage leading experts to explore future opportunities for our academic research investment and health and well-being initiatives.
Coca-cola took a lot of heat when it was revealed that it bankrolled studies that showed obesity was largely the result of sedentary lifestyles and not ove...

Dependence on bodybuilding supplements compared to eating disorder

Researchers say marketers target male insecurities

Illegal anabolic steroids are not the only way men have tried to get a bodybuilding advantage. Most men are now well aware of the hazards those drugs can carry and avoid them.

Instead, more men are turning to legal over-the-counter bodybuilding supplements and it's these products that health officials are worried about.

Research presented at the American Psychological Association’s annual convention warns that some users rely on these products so much that it should be considered an eating disorder.

Ubiquitous fixture

“These products have become an almost ubiquitous fixture in the pantries of young men across the country and can seemingly be purchased anywhere and everywhere -- from grocery stores to college book stores,” said Richard Achiro, of the California School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International University, Los Angeles, who presented the research.

Achiro says marketing efforts for these product target “underlying insecurities associated with masculinity.” He says they're presented as a solution to fill a void so many young men feel.

The study involved young men who purchased legal performance-enhancing supplements and worked out at a gym at least two times a week. They were questioned about supplement use, self-esteem, body image, eating habits and gender role conflicts.


The researchers said they were concerned when they learned more than 40% of the young men in the survey reported that their use of supplements had increased over time and 22% said they replaced regular meals with dietary supplements that are not intended to be meal replacements.

Most alarming, said Achiro, was that 29% expressed concern about their own use of supplements and 8% said their physician had told them to cut back on or stop using supplements due to actual or potential adverse health side effects.

A few of the participants had actually suffered negative health effects. About 3% said they had been hospitalized for kidney or liver problems that were related to the use of supplements.

“The most critical implication for these findings is to put risky/excessive legal supplement use on the map as an issue facing a significant number of men,” said Achiro.

Body issues not limited to women

Achiro says the results make clear that body-conscious issues aren't limited to young women. Why men are also effected isn't exactly clear, but he says evidence suggests it's a combination of factors, including body dissatisfaction and gender role conflicts.

“Body-conscious men who are driven by psychological factors to attain a level of physical or masculine ‘perfection’ are prone to use these supplements and drugs in a manner that is excessive and which was demonstrated in this study to be a variant of disordered eating,” said Achiro. “As legal supplements become increasingly prevalent around the globe, it is all the more important to assess and treat the psychological causes and effects of excessive use of these drugs and supplements.”

The bodybuilding community has not written off all supplements – just some. An essay on warns users to avoid certain products, including ones that contain Vanadyl, which it says mimics insulin and is possibly harmful.

Illegal anabolic steroids are not the only way men have tried to get a bodybuilding advantage. Most men are now well aware of the hazards those drugs can c...

Dallas doctors using fat-eating drug on double chins

But it hasn't been approved for use on other areas of the body

Plastic surgeons have wasted no time in putting a newly-approved "fat eating" drug to work. The drug, called deoxycholic acid or Kybella, physically destroys the fat cells when injected into tissue. It won FDA approval earlier this year.

Doctors at the University of Texas (UT)Southwestern Medical Center have begun using it as a way to eliminate what is often referred to as a double chin. The FDA approval has cleared its way for use as a non-surgical option.

But a drug that “eats” fat seems like a chronic dieter's dream, almost too good to be true.

“Kybella is identical to a deoxycholic acid, which is naturally produced by the body to absorb fat,” said Dr. Jeffrey Kenkel, professor and interim chairman of plastic surgery, at UT Southwestern. 

Kenkel has recently begun performing the procedure in Dallas.

“Kybella takes advantage of that fat-destroying activity to help eliminate the fat below the chin,” he said. “This provides a new option to consider for those who are not ready for a surgical fix, but are looking for an answer as to how to get rid of fat beneath the chin.”

Outpatient procedure

The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. A patient receives as many as 30 injections into the fat below the chin in a single treatment. Most patients, however, receive as many as four treatments to get the desired results.

FDA guidelines require the treatments to be done at least one month apart. Kenkel says the number of treatments depends on the amount of fat and other factors determined during a consultation.

Liposuction and surgery remain options but Kenkel says the drug treatment is effective for someone with moderate to severe fat below the chin.

When the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery polled consumers recently, it found 68% were concerned about having a double chin. More than half said they were considering surgery.

Surgery averse

“We will likely see a different patient type seeking treatment with Kybella,”said Dr. Bardia Amirlak, an assistant professor at UT Southwestern. “Those averse to surgery, including more men, will likely be interested in this new non-surgical treatment for the double chin.”

According to the physicians, Kybella is not intended for other chin related issues such as sagging skin or “turkey neck,” which may be addressed through other treatments - nor has it been approved for reducing fat in other areas of the body.

While Kybella doesn't involve surgery, if it's successful then surgery might be needed. That's because once excess fat is removed, patients may still need to consider removing excess skin.

Neck lift

A more traditional plastic surgery procedure like a neck lift can remove skin as well as fat beneath the chin, a procedure known as a lower rhytidectomy. The procedure can remove excess fat, skin relaxation in the lower face that creates jowls, and excess fatty deposits under the chin - as well as tighten loose neck skin and fix muscle banding in the neck.

Like any drug, Kybella can have side effects. The most common are swelling, bruising, pain, numbness, redness, and areas of hardness in the treatment area.

More serious side effects can include nerve injury in the jaw that can cause an uneven smile or facial muscle weakness, as well as trouble swallowing.

Plastic surgeons have wasted no time in putting a newly-approved "fat eating" drug to work. The drug, called deoxycholic acid or Kybella, physically destro...

"Beach Body Ready" ad banned in Britain

It's not offensive, it's just misleading, ad standards group finds

A U.K. advertising standards body has banned the "Beach Body Ready" ad that has had Britons -- well, some Britons anyway -- fuming. The ad shows a very slender model in a skimpy bikini who is supposedly ready to fling her svelte body onto the nearest sandy beach (not that Great Britain is exactly awash in such things).

Proper Brits were outraged by the ad, which they found not only sexist but also offensive to those whose bones carry a heavier burden of bodily tissue.

They were also put off by the somewhat snippy tweets from the manufacturer of the protein supplements touted in the ads.

One British consumer tweeted that the ads made her feel that she was "not good enough." Came the response: "Why make your insecurities our problem?"

But none of that mattered to the U.K. Advertising Standards Authority, which simply found that the product being advertised -- Protein World -- doesn't really make the pounds fall away like sand through a funnel.

The ads have now crossed the pond and are appearing in subway cars in New York City, where they have gone largely unnoticed.

A U.K. advertising standards body has banned the "Beach Body Ready" ad that has had Britons -- well, some Britons anyway -- fuming. The ad shows a very sle...

Feds charge company used "fake news" websites to promote bogus weight-loss products

Sale Slash also allegedly sent millions of spam email and used phony celebrity endorsements

A company called Sale Slash has Oprah Winfrey and other big-name celebrities endorsing it and it uses "fake news" sites and spam emails to lure customers but the Federal Trade Commission says its weight-loss products are unproven and its claims outrageous.

“Sale Slash is a fraud trifecta,” said Jessica Rich, Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “The company made outlandish weight-loss claims for its diet pills using fake news sites, phony celebrity endorsements, and millions of unwanted spam emails.”

The FTC has obtained a court order temporarily halting the Glendale, California, company's operations.

The court order halts the defendants’ illegal conduct, freezes their assets, and appoints a temporary receiver over the corporate defendants. The Commission ultimately is seeking to recover money from the defendants that would be used to provide refunds to consumers who bought the defendants’ diet pills.

The FTC’s complaint charges that the defendants behind Sale Slash used affiliate marketers to send illegal spam emails and post banner ads online that led consumers to fake news sites designed to appear as if an independent consumer reporter, rather than a paid advertiser, had reviewed and endorsed the products.

The complaint alleges that these fake news sites made false weight-loss claims and used phony celebrity endorsements to promote the defendants’ diet pills.

Since 2012, the defendants allegedly have marketed and sold a variety of products nationwide, including supposed weight-loss supplements such as Premium Green Coffee, Pure Garcinia Cambogia, Premium White Kidney Bean Extract, Pure Forskolin Extract, and Pure Caralluma Fimbriata Extract.

A company called Sale Slash has Oprah Winfrey and other big-name celebrities endorsing it and it uses "fake news" sites and spam emails to lure customers b...

Why it's so hard to lose weight

There are many reasons but it often comes down to controlling hunger

Anyone who has ever gone on a diet knows how hard it is to stick to it so that you get results.

Part of the problem is breaking old habits, but for most of us, the hardest part is overcoming the hunger pangs caused by eating less of the food we like.

Hunger is an ancient product of human wiring. It ensures survival by telling the brain that the body needs more fuel to keep going. Hunger gets the brain's attention.

Unpleasant sensation

“One reason that dieting is so difficult is because of the unpleasant sensation arising from a persistent hunger drive,” said Bradford Lowell, a leader of a U.S. research team that is studying the brain's role in causing us to overeat.

The team has discovered that a brain circuit serves as the neural link that inhibits and controls eating, kind of like a switch. It found that this brain circuit not only promotes fullness in hungry mice but also alleviates the sensation of grating hunger.

“Our results show that the artificial activation of this particular brain circuit is pleasurable and can reduce feeding in mice, essentially resulting in the same outcome as dieting but without the chronic feeling of hunger,” Lowell said.

Now that this circuit has been identified, the researchers say they can develop a more effective diet drug.

Processed food

Stacey Cahn, an associate professor of psychology at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, has also been studying why we get so hungry that we can't control our appetite. She's come up with a different answer.

Cahn says eating processed food makes it much harder to control your food cravings and that it's no accident. She points out food manufacturers have invested billions of dollars in making their products almost impossible to resist. It's just “good business” on their part, she says.

“Research shows that we’re much more likely to overeat processed foods than 'whole foods,'” Cahn said. “Snack foods that have an airy, crispy texture like cheese puffs leave us particularly prone to overeating because of vanishing caloric density. As the snack somewhat dissolves on our tongues, our bodies don’t register those fat calories, so we still feel hungry, and we keep eating.”

The smorgasbord effect

The reason a buffet is so hard on the waistline, she says, is because eating a single food item makes us feel full faster. But a buffet, with its wide variety of dishes, keeps us from habituating to any single one.

“That’s why processed foods like nacho chips are engineered to contain a complex spectrum of flavors,” she said. “So we keep eating. And while junk foods may lead to overeating, their unnatural ingredients may independently lead to weight gain.”

Cahn further claims that avoiding calories with artificially-sweetened beverages often has an opposite, unintended effect. Experiencing sweetness without the expected corresponding calories can cause hunger cues to be felt more intensely. The calories we avoid drinking a diet soda are more than made up when we give into temptation later on.

Anyone who has ever gone on a diet knows how hard it is to stick to it so that you get results....

Researchers: Eat the right food and lose weight

There's a new focus on the role glycemic load plays in weight gain

When consumers embrace a particular weight loss program, they may achieve results. But in other instances, try as they might, the pounds can be very slow to come off, if they come off at all.

In the latter case, it might not be a matter of how much a dieter is eating, but what the dieter is eating.

Changing those old eating habits – adding certain foods to the diet and avoiding others – can make it easier to win the battle of the bulge. At least that’s the conclusion of researchers at Tufts University.

At Tufts, the Friedman School Nutrition Science & Policy analyzed 3 previous studies that were based on more than 16 years of follow-up among 120,000 adults. That led researchers there to focus on the glycemic content, or load (GL) of particular foods.

The GL is determined by multiplying a food’s glycemic index, a measure of a food’s ability to create blood glucose, by the carbohydrate content. Foods with a high GL were more likely to make it easier to gain weight and harder to lose it.

Refined grains, starches and sugars

Food with a big GL include refined grains, starches and sugars. Researchers say these high GL foods can boost blood glucose and lead to chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes. Until now, they say, the link to weight gain had not been firmly established.

“There is mounting scientific evidence that diets including less low-quality carbohydrates, such as white breads, potatoes, and sweets, and higher in protein-rich foods may be more efficient for weight loss,” said Jessica Smith, one of the authors. “We wanted to know how that might apply to preventing weight gain in the first place.”

If you are trying, without result, to lose weight you may be interested in the food Smith and her colleagues say you should eat and what you should avoid – or at least keep consumption to a minimum.

Less red meat, more yogurt

The study concluded that increasing the amount of red meat and processed meat are the food items most strongly associated with weight gain.

Conversely, increasing consumption of yogurt, seafood, skinless chicken and nuts are most strongly associated with weight loss. In fact, the more people ate these foods, the more weight they lost.

Interestingly, the researchers found that eating dairy products in general didn’t seem to have much effect one way or the other.

“The fat content of dairy products did not seem to be important for weight gain,” Smith said. “In fact, when people consumed more low-fat dairy products, they actually increased their consumption of carbs, which may promote weight gain. This suggests that people compensate, over years, for the lower calories in low-fat dairy by increasing their carb intake.”

What else is on your plate?

The combination of foods you consume also appears to be important. For example, avoiding foods with a high GL seemed to make fish, nuts and other food associated with weight loss even more effective.

Weight-neutral foods like eggs and cheese appear to contribute to weight gain when combined with high GL food but are associated with weight loss when eaten with low GL food.

The chief take-away from the study seems to be this: not all calories are created equal.

“Our study adds to growing new research that counting calories is not the most effective strategy for long-term weight management and prevention,” said Dariush Mozaffarian, the study’s senior author. “Some foods help prevent weight gain, others make it worse. Most interestingly, the combination of foods seems to make a big difference.”

The Tufts researchers advise those trying to shed a few pounds to not only emphasize specific protein-rich foods like fish, nuts, and yogurt to prevent weight gain, but also focus on avoiding refined grains, starches, and sugars in order to maximize the benefits of these healthful protein-rich foods.

To further help consumers identify foods to eat and avoid, the Harvard Medical School recently published this list of 100 foods and their GL.

When consumers embrace a particular weight loss program, they may achieve results. But in other instances, try as they might, the pounds can be very slow t...

Food TV is fun but may also be fattening

Researchers caution viewers not to try this at home

Cable TV networks broadcasting cooking shows have enjoyed ratings success with shows featuring delicious, rich natural ingredients made from scratch.

But if you not only watch these programs but also try a lot of their recipes in your kitchen, you could run the risk of putting on a few pounds. At least that's the conclusion of a study appearing in the journal Appetite.

The University of Vermont's Lizzy Pope, the study's lead author, says the message is pretty clear.

“Food TV should be a viewing experience only, not a cooking experience,” she said.

On one hand these findings are hardly surprising. If you eat food rich in butter, cream and sauces, how could you not gain weight?

The study

But the scientists had to prove a correlation, so they asked 501 women between the ages of 20 and 35 where they got the information about the new foods they tried, how frequently they cooked from scratch, and then some physical data, like their heights and weights.

It turns out that women in the study who watched food television and cooked frequently from scratch had a higher body-mass-index, (BMI), weighing on average 10 more pounds than those who got their recipes from family and friends, magazines and newspapers, or cooking classes.

The researchers even found that people who frequently cooked from scratch using a recipe, but didn’t watch food TV, did not have a higher BMI. More significantly the researchers say, is that women in the study who enjoyed watching the programs but did not cook meals from scratch also avoided the extra pounds.

Don't try this at home

“Those who are watching just for entertainment are fine,” Pope said.

What's the takeaway from this? Study co-author Brian Wansink, director of the Cornell Food and Brand Lab, says the recipes on cooking shows are not the healthiest. Viewers feel like it's okay to indulge in either less nutritious food or bigger portions.

At the same time, Food TV is not all about high-calorie comfort food dishes. Food Network, for examples, also highlights quick and healthy recipes, including this one for a 20-minute broiled chicken dinner.

The study authors agree that there is plenty of blame to go around, and in fact found that people who try recipes they see on social media sites also had a higher BMI.

“It could be that seeing photos of ‘perfect,’ often rich foods your friends post on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram makes it seem like their unhealthy eating patterns are the norm,” Pope said.

How food TV can help

Pope said Food TV producers can help their viewers eat healthier and more nutritious foods by using more recipes that demonstrate how food can look good, taste good, be exciting and be social.

Pope also leaves us with one final thought; making meals from scratch isn't always the best and healthiest option.

“It definitely can result in healthier food than eating out all the time, but only if you're cooking healthy recipes and healthy food,” she said.

Cable TV networks broadcasting cooking shows have enjoyed ratings success with shows featuring delicious, rich natural ingredients made from scratch....

Green coffee bean promoter to pay $9 million

Dr. Oz ' endorsement carries little weight with the feds

Dr. Oz may think it's great but the Federal Trade Commission says the green coffee bean extract he gushed over doesn't live up to its hype. Promoter Lindsey Duncan and his companies have agreed to pay $9 million to settle FTC deceptive advertising charges.

“Lindsey Duncan and his companies made millions by falsely claiming that green coffee bean supplements cause significant and rapid weight loss,” said Jessica Rich, Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection.

The FTC charged that Duncan and his companies, Pure Health LLC and Genesis Today, Inc., deceptively claimed that the supplement could cause consumers to lose 17 pounds and 16 percent of their body fat in just 12 weeks without diet or exercise, and that the claim was backed up by a clinical study. In September 2014, the FTC settled charges against the company that sponsored the severely flawed study that Duncan discussed on Dr. Oz.

According to the FTC’s complaint, shortly after Duncan agreed to appear on Dr. Oz but before the show aired, he began selling the extract and tailored a marketing campaign around his appearance on the show to capitalize on the “Oz effect” – a phenomenon in which discussion of a product on the program causes an increase in consumer demand.

Search advertising

For example, while discussing green coffee bean extract during the taping of Dr. Oz, Duncan urged viewers to search for the product online using phrases his companies would use in search advertising to drive consumers to their websites selling the extract.

He reached out to retailers, describing his upcoming appearance on The Dr. Oz Show and saying he planned to discuss the clinical trials that purportedly proved the supplement’s effectiveness. He and his companies also began an intensive effort to make the extract available in Walmart stores and on when the program aired.

The FTC also alleged that Duncan and several of the companies’ paid spokespeople portrayed themselves on television shows as independent sources of information about green coffee bean extract and other natural remedies, while failing to disclose their financial ties to the companies.

Dr. Oz may think it's great but the Federal Trade Commission says the green coffee bean extract he promoted doesn't live up to its hype. Promoter Lindsey D...

Staying on your diet at Thanksgiving

Here are 10 ways to avoid putting on holiday pounds

If you've been on a weight control plan the last few weeks, good for you. But here's a warning – the holidays are dead ahead.

The problem starts with Thanksgiving Day. That's when the strongest willpower can run off the rails, leading to weight gain over the next few weeks as one party and family dinner follows another.

Kristen Kizer, a registered dietitian at Houston Methodist Hospital, says Thanksgiving can be especially dangerous for a dieter because it's a big, traditional feast. There are so many dishes associated with this traditional meal that it's hard not to load up your plate.

“Remind yourself how it feels to over-eat,” she said. “Remember there will always be leftovers, so you don’t need to overindulge in one sitting.”

Kizer has offered up 10 pieces of advice that can help everyone avoid getting the holidays off to an unhealthy start.

1. Get some exercise

There will be plenty of time in the afternoon and evening for sitting on the couch. Start the day with some exercise, whether its a 5k road race or a brisk walk. Burn some calories before sitting down to dinner.

2. Eat breakfast

You might be tempted to skip breakfast to save room for your Thanksgiving meal. Not a good idea, Kizer says. Eat a satisfying, healthy breakfast so you won't be overly hungry when they start passing around all those tempting delicacies.

3. Pass on the casserole

Every family has a couple of casseroles that are part of Thanksgiving tradition but there are good reasons to pass them on without taking a serving. Yes, you may love the green bean casserole but between the fried onion strings, condensed soup, and canned beans, it lacks nutritional value.

Kizer has a recipe to try instead; fresh steamed green beans with some low-fat cheese sprinkled on top or roasted green beans with a little olive oil and fresh garlic.

4. Nix the sugar

Come on, how sweet do the sweet potatoes have to be? Kizer says the Pilgrims didn't top them off with marshmallows and neither should you. A sweet potato is plenty sweet on its own.

5. Don't get stuffed on stuffing

How about giving the classic Thanksgiving side dish a makeover by adding more vegetables like celery, onions and carrots and eliminating fatty meat like sausage?

6. Add something healthy to the line-up

Tradition is one thing but that doesn't mean you can't branch out. Take advantage of some non-traditional fall foods like Brussels sprouts and butternut squash, or try a roasted starchy vegetable medley with baby red potatoes, carrots, onions and acorn squash.

7. Limit your carbs

For some reason Thanksgiving meals are heavy in carbohydrates. If you have stuffing, do you really need mashed potatoes too?

8. Add healthy desserts

No one is suggesting that you do away with the apple pie but consider a guilt-free dessert or two, providing something sweet but with fewer calories. Get creative with your recipes, using natural applesauce instead of oil or butter in your desserts. Kizer says this simple ingredient swap not only adds moisture and flavor to baked goods, but fiber and nutrients.

9. Alcohol or dessert

If you have a couple of drinks before sitting down to Thanksgiving diner, you've already consumed 200 calories or more before taking a bite. Then at the end of dinner, that slice of pecan pie has ended the meal with no telling how many calories – all empty.

Kizer suggests choosing one or the other. If you choose alcohol, pick a drink with lower calories, such as a wine spritzer instead of creamy holiday drinks that can easily pack 500 calories.

10. Portion control

No doubt all the food looks good but that doesn't mean you have to try it all and fill up every spot on your plate. Hosts can help but cutting back on the amount of food they prepare.

Remember, if you go overboard at Thanksgiving there may be no turning back. The end -of-the-year holidays all seem to involving eating and drinking, putting you back to square 1 in your weight management quest in January.

If you've been on a weight control plan the last few weeks, good for you. But here's a warning – the holidays are dead ahead....

Family dinners can help keep kids trim

Good eating habits start in childhood and pay off later in life

The experts have been touting the significance of it for years. We are talking about the all important family dinner. It's a time to reconnect and talk about the day. It helps develop a sense of who we are as a family unit. Remember those?

Well, there is a new twist and yet another reason to pick up your fork and spoon or maybe put it down for a bit and listen. Having a family dinner especially during adolescence can help fight obesity. If kids are overweight in their teens they have a likelihood of being overweight as an adult.

There was a long-term study known as Project EAT (Eating and Activity among Teens) it examined weight-related variables among adolescents, including how much they ate, how much physical activity they did and their daily behaviors -- all of these influence weight control. The study is scheduled for publication in the Journal of Pediatrics.

Researchers from the University of Minnesota and Columbia University took a look at the data and what they found was that family meals had all the good stuff -- fruits, vegetables whole grains and calcium. They suggested that having those things in their diet can help teens lessen their chance of obesity as they become adults. Also parents eating healthy is a good role model and sets the tone of "eat this, not that."

10 years later

They followed up after 10 years and of the teens who said that they never ate family meals together, 60% were overweight and 29% were obese.

Researchers concluded that just having one or two family meals a week significantly reduced chances of being overweight or obese.

"It is important to identify modifiable factors in the home environment, such as family meals, that can protect against overweight/obesity through the transition to adulthood," said Minnesota researcher Jerica M. Berge.

You have probably heard the term an "emotional eater." Family meals may help fight that as sitting around the dinner table gives kids a chance to talk and deal with some of the issues they may be facing. The interaction and emotional connection becomes a release.

Some research in 2013 by Cornell University could be the second course for this study as it found that turning the TV off at dinner time while having dinner with the family and not turning it back on until everyone was finished was linked to a lower body mass.

"The positive socialization skills that family dinners tend to encourage possibly hold down the urge or need to overeat, a Cornell researcher said. 
"The ritual of where one eats and how long one eats seems to be the largest driver."

You might want to warm up the meatloaf and add a salad tonight.

The experts have been touting the significance of it for years. We are talking about the all important family dinner. It's a time to reconnect and talk abo...

An apple a day could keep the pounds away

Granny Smith apples are especially high in "nondigestible compounds," study finds

You might not think of apples as being hard to digest and they're not. But it turns out that they contain a high percentage of nondigestible compounds that may be helpful in preventing disorders associated with obesity.

Scientists at Washington State University say their study finds that Granny Smith apples are particularly beneficial; they encourage the growth of friendly bacteria in the colon because of their high content of non-digestible compounds, including dietary fiber and polyphenols, and low content of available carbohydrates. 

“We know that, in general, apples are a good source of these nondigestible compounds but there are differences in varieties,” said food scientist Giuliana Noratto, the study’s lead researcher. “Results from this study will help consumers to discriminate between apple varieties that can aid in the fight against obesity.”

Despite being subjected to chewing, stomach acid and digestive enzymes, the nondigestible compounds remain intact when they reach the colon. Once there, they are fermented by bacteria in the colon, which benefits the growth of friendly bacteria in the gut.

The study showed that Granny Smith apples surpass Braeburn, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, McIntosh and Red Delicious in the amount of nondigestible compounds they contain.

“The nondigestible compounds in the Granny Smith apples actually changed the proportions of fecal bacteria from obese mice to be similar to that of lean mice,” Noratto said.

The discovery could help prevent some of the disorders associated with obesity such as low-grade, chronic inflammation that can lead to diabetes.

The balance of bacterial communities in the colon of obese people is disturbed. This results in microbial byproducts that lead to inflammation and influence metabolic disorders associated with obesity, Noratto said.

“What determines the balance of bacteria in our colon is the food we consume,” she said. Re-establishing a healthy balance of bacteria in the colon stabilizes metabolic processes that influence inflammation and the sensation of feeling satisfied, or satiety.

The study appears in October’s print edition of the journal Food Chemistry.

You might not think of apples as being hard to digest and they're not. But it turns out that they contain a high percentage of nondigestible compounds that...

Nine fats that just might improve your health

But fats are loaded with calories and should be consumed in moderation

The diet world has been jolted recently by studies suggesting that eating fat is not such a bad thing after all. It might not lead to heart disease and it might not make you gain weight, researchers have argued.

But it all depends on what kind of fat you consume – and how much. Nutritionists have known for years that some kinds of fats are actually beneficial. Some are harmful.

Writing in the September issue of Food Technology magazine, Linda Milo Ohr makes the case for fatty acids and nutritional oils. They can improve memory function, help manage body weight, and contribute to heart health, eye and brain development, and even improved mood.

She singles out 9 fats that she says can enhance, not harm health.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are associated with improved brain development, memory function, eye health, can reduce chances of dementia and depression. They are also widely well-known for their heart health benefits.

Pinolenic Acid

Pinolenic acid comes from pine nut oil, which in turn comes from a specific Korean pine tree. Ohr says clinical trials have shown that it can help suppress appetite and promote a feeling of fullness.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Conjugated linoleic acid also helps with weight management by helping reduce body fat and increase lean body mass. It's found in many meats and dairy products.

Flaxseed Oil

Flaxseed oil is a way to load up on omega-3 fatty acids as well as omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids. They can be good for your heart and help reduce inflammation.

Hemp Oil

Hemp seed oil is another source of omega-6 and omega-3 linolenic essential fatty acids. It's also high in vitamin E.

Fish Oil

Fish oil is valued for its positive effect on cardiovascular, neurological, and cognitive health.

Canola Oil

“A study showed that a canola oil-enriched, low-glycemic-diet improved blood sugar control in type 2 diabetics, especially those with raised systolic blood pressure,” Ohr writes.

Soybean Oil

Extracted from the seed of the soybean, soybean oil is widely used as a healthy cooking oil.

Coconut Oil

Although not as much research has been done compared to olive or fish oil, coconut oil is believed to enhance energy, skin health, and dental health.

Fats that can be harmful

While adding these healthy fats to a nutritious diet might be a good thing, there are definitely fats that can have harmful effects, according to doctors at the Mayo Clinic.

Saturated fat is fat that comes mainly from animal sources of food, such as red meat, poultry and full-fat dairy products. Too much can raise total blood cholesterol levels and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, which can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. Saturated fat may also increase your risk of type 2 diabetes.

Trans fat occurs naturally in some foods but most are manufactured from oils through a food processing method called partial hydrogenation. The Mayo Clinic cites studies showing that these partially hydrogenated trans fats can increase unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower healthy high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. This can also increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.

The diet world has been jolted recently by studies suggesting that eating fat is not such a bad thing after all. It might not lead to heart disease and it ...

Feds okay weight-management drug Contrave

The drug exhibited dramatic results in clinical testing

Contrave (naltrexone hydrochloride and bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets) has won approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as treatment option for chronic weight management.

The drug is approved -- along with a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity -- for use in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater (obesity) or adults with a BMI of 27 or greater (overweight) who have at least one weight-related condition such as high blood pressure (hypertension), type 2 diabetes, or high cholesterol (dyslipidemia).

BMI, which measures body fat based on an individual’s weight and height, is used to define the obesity and overweight categories. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than one-third of U.S. adults are obese.

“Obesity continues to be a major public health concern,” said Jean-Marc Guettier, M.D., director of the Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology Products in FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “When used as directed in combination with a healthy lifestyle that includes a reduced-calorie diet and exercise, Contrave provides another treatment option for chronic weight management for people who are obese or are overweight and have at least one weight-related health condition.”

Impressive test results

The effectiveness of Contrave was evaluated in multiple clinical trials that included approximately 4,500 obese and overweight patients with and without significant weight-related conditions treated for one year. All patients received lifestyle modification that consisted of a reduced- calorie diet and regular physical activity.

Results from a clinical trial that enrolled patients without diabetes showed that patients had an average weight loss of 4.1% over treatment with placebo (inactive pill) at one year. In this trial, 42% of patients treated with Contrave lost at least 5% of their body weight compared with 17% of patients treated with placebo.

In another clinical trial that enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes, patients had an average weight loss of 2% over treatment with placebo at one year. In this trial, 36% of patients treated with Contrave lost at least 5% of their body weight compared with 18% of patients treated with placebo.

Patients using Contrave at the maintenance dose should be evaluated after 12 weeks to determine if the treatment is working. If a patient has not lost at least 5% of baseline body weight, Contrave should be discontinued, as it is unlikely that the patient will achieve and sustain clinically meaningful weight loss with continued treatment.

Use with caution

Because it contains bupropion, Contrave has a boxed warning to alert health care professionals and patients to the increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors associated with antidepressant drugs.

The warning also notes that serious neuropsychiatric events have been reported in patients taking bupropion for smoking cessation.

Contrave can cause seizures and must not be used in patients who have seizure disorders. The risk of seizure is dose-related. The drug should be discontinued and not restarted in patients who experience a seizure while being treated with Contrave.

Contrave can also raise blood pressure and heart rate and must not be used in patients with uncontrolled high blood pressure. Blood pressure and pulse should be measured prior to starting the drug and should be monitored at regular intervals, particularly among patients with controlled high blood pressure prior to treatment.

Other products containing bupropion should not be taken along with Contrave. The drug should not be used in patients who have eating disorders (bulimia or anorexia nervosa). Contrave should also not be taken by patients who are using opioids or treatments for opioid dependence, or who are experiencing acute opiate withdrawal.

Patients undergoing an abrupt discontinuation of alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates and antiepileptic drugs should not take Contrave. Women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant should not take Contrave.

The most common adverse reactions reported with Contrave include nausea, constipation, headache, vomiting, dizziness, insomnia, dry mouth, and diarrhea.

Post-marketing requirements

The FDA is requiring the following:

  • a cardiovascular outcomes trial to assess the cardiovascular risk associated with Contrave use;
  • two efficacy, safety, and clinical pharmacology studies in pediatric patients (one in patients 12 to 17 years of age, and one in patients 7 to 11 years of age);
  • a nonclinical (animal) juvenile toxicity study with a particular focus on growth and development as well as behavior, learning, and memory;
  • a study to evaluate the effect of Contrave on cardiac conduction;
  • clinical trials to evaluate dosing in patients with hepatic or renal impairment;
  • a clinical trial to evaluate the potential for interactions between Contrave and other drugs.
Contrave (naltrexone hydrochloride and bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets) has won approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as tr...

Dr. Oz' green coffee bean weight loss claims were baseless: FTC

Botched study didn't prove anything, feds charged

If you look long enough, you can find claims that just about anything you can think of will help you lose weight. Unfortunately, most of those claims don't hold water. And they certainly don't help you lose weight, even when they're made by Dr. Oz or some other celebrity.

One thing you can add to the not-much-help list is green coffee beans. the subject of a flawed study touted by Dr. Oz but later discredited. 

Now, a Texas-based company, Applied Food Sciences, Inc. (AFS), has settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it used the results of that flawed study to make baseless weight-loss claims about its green coffee extract to retailers, who then repeated those claims in marketing finished products to consumers.

The FTC complaint alleges the study was so hopelessly flawed that no reliable conclusions could be drawn from it. 

The settlement requires AFS to pay $3.5 million, and to have scientific substantiation for any future weight-loss claims it makes, including at least two adequate and well-controlled human clinical tests.

“Applied Food Sciences knew or should have known that this botched study didn’t prove anything,” said Jessica Rich, Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “In publicizing the results, it helped fuel the green coffee phenomenon.”

Researchers in India

According to the FTC’s complaint, in 2010, Austin, Texas-based AFS paid researchers in India to conduct a clinical trial on overweight adults to test whether Green Coffee Antioxidant (GCA), a dietary supplement containing green coffee extract, reduced body weight and body fat.

The FTC charges that the study’s lead investigator repeatedly altered the weights and other key measurements of the subjects, changed the length of the trial, and misstated which subjects were taking the placebo or GCA during the trial.

When the lead investigator was unable to get the study published, the FTC says that AFS hired researchers Joe Vinson and Bryan Burnham at the University of Scranton to rewrite it. Despite receiving conflicting data, Vinson, Burnham, and AFS never verified the authenticity of the information used in the study, according to the complaint.

Despite the study’s flaws, AFS used it to falsely claim that GCA caused consumers to lose 17.7 pounds, 10.5 percent of body weight, and 16 percent of body fat with or without diet and exercise, in 22 weeks, the complaint alleges.

"Without diet or exercise"

Although AFS played no part in featuring its study on The Dr. Oz Show, it took advantage of the publicity afterwards by issuing a press release highlighting the show.

The release claimed that study subjects lost weight “without diet or exercise,” even though subjects in the study were instructed to restrict their diet and increase their exercise, the FTC contends.

The proposed order settling the FTC’s charges bars AFS from misrepresenting any aspect of a test or study related to the products it sells, and prohibits the company from providing anyone else with the means of falsely advertising, labeling, promoting, or using purported substantiation material in marketing their own products.

If you look long enough, you can find claims that just about anything you can think of will help you lose weight. Unfortunately, most of those claims don't...

Study finds obese weight-loss counselors aren't as effective as their slimmer colleagues

Patients may be more receptive to counselors who practice what they preach

Some studies are more surprising than others. Falling into the not-too-surprising category is the finding by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health that finds overweight counselors aren't as effective as their slimmer counterparts are getting obese patients to lose weight.

In other words, patients may be more receptive to those who "practice what they preach."

Study leader Sara Bleich, PhD, an associate professor with the Bloomberg School's Department of Health Policy and Management, put it a bit more academically:

"Our research shows that the personal weight of health professionals matters when assessing their perceived level of success in helping obese patients to lose weight," she said. "Health professionals who maintain a healthy weight feel more empowered to help their obese patients achieve their weight loss goals and reported being more successful at helping obese patients lose weight."

Study details

The researchers surveyed 500 non-physician health professionals specializing in nutrition, nursing, behavior/mental health, exercise and pharmacy between January 20 and February 5, 2014.

Professionals of all weights, the survey found, were equally confident in their ability to relay proper weight-loss advice and felt that patients were equally receptive to it. But 52 percent of those counselors of normal weight reported success in helping obese patients achieve clinically significant weight loss as compared to 29 percent of overweight counselors.

The study also found that most health professionals, regardless of their weight, do not feel successful in helping patients with weight loss until they are morbidly obese, which suggests missed opportunities for early intervention.

A 2012 study led by Bleich on the impact of physician BMI on obesity care found that size also matters when it comes to physician care of obese patients. It found that normal-weight physicians, as compared to overweight/obese physicians, were more likely to provide recommended obesity care to their patients and feel confident doing so.

"More research is needed to understand how to improve obesity care delivered by non-physician health professionals, and why these groups do not typically initiate weight management discussions until their patients are morbidly obese, regardless of their personal body weight," Bleich says. "Going forward, it will be important to increase the confidence, perception and skill set among all health professionals who work on this public health issue."

The findings were published online Sept. 4 in the journal Obesity.

Some studies are more surprising than others. Falling into the not-too-surprising category is the finding by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch...

Train your brain to prefer healthy foods

Tufts researchers say it can be done

A brain scan study suggests it may be possible to train your brain to prefer healthy low-calorie foods over unhealthy higher-calorie foods, reversing the addictive power of unhealthy food.

"We don't start out in life loving French fries and hating, for example, whole wheat pasta," said Susan B. Roberts, Ph.D., a professor at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University and an adjunct professor of psychiatry at Tufts University School of Medicine. "This conditioning happens over time in response to eating -- repeatedly! -- what is out there in the toxic food environment."

Scientists have long suspected that, once unhealthy food addiction circuits are established, they may be hard or impossible to reverse, subjecting people who have gained weight to a lifetime of unhealthy food cravings and temptation.

To find out whether the brain can be re-trained to support healthy food choices, Roberts and colleagues studied the reward system in 13 overweight and obese men and women, 8 of whom were participants in a new weight loss program designed by Tufts University researchers and 5 who were in a control group and were not enrolled in the program.

The study is published in the journal Nutrition & Diabetes.

Both groups underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans at the beginning and end of a 6-month period. Among those who participated in the weight loss program, the brain scans revealed changes in areas of the brain reward center associated with learning and addiction. After 6 months, this area had increased sensitivity to healthy, lower-calorie foods, indicating an increased reward and enjoyment of healthier food cues. The area also showed decreased sensitivity to the unhealthy higher-calorie foods.

"The weight loss program is specifically designed to change how people react to different foods, and our study shows those who participated in it had an increased desire for healthier foods along with a decreased preference for unhealthy foods, the combined effects of which are probably critical for sustainable weight control," said co-author Sai Krupa Das, Ph.D., an assistant professor at the Friedman School. "To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of this important switch."

The authors hypothesize that several features of the weight loss program were important, including behavior change education and high-fiber, low glycemic menu plans.

"There is much more research to be done here, involving many more participants, long-term follow-up and investigating more areas of the brain," Roberts added. "But we are very encouraged that, the weight loss program appears to change what foods are tempting to people."

A brain scan study suggests it may be possible to train your brain to prefer healthy low-calorie foods over unhealthy higher-calorie foods, reversing the a...

Eating out -- anywhere -- leads to more calories, poorer nutrition

It's not just fast food that contributes to weight gain

Fast-food restaurants take a lot of blame for the U.S. obesity epidemic but a new study weighs in with the news that eating out -- period -- piles on the calories, sugar, saturated fat and sodium.

The study, appearing online in Public Health Nutrition, finds that on days when adults ate at a restaurant -- fast-food or full-service -- they consumed about 200 additional total daily calories.

"The United States is one of the most obese nations in the world, with more than one in three adult men and women in defined as obese," said Dr. Binh Nguyen of the American Cancer Society. "Just as obesity rates rise, there's been a marked increase in total energy consumption consumed away from home, with about one in four calories coming from fast food or full service restaurants in 2007. Our study confirms that adults' fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption was associated with higher daily total energy intake and poorer dietary indicators."

For the current study, Nguyen and Lisa M. Powell of the University of Illinois at Chicago used recent data from more than 12,000 respondents between the ages of 20 and 64 taking part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 (NHANES). Participants were asked about visits to fast-food and full-service restaurants on two successive days.

The study found on days when eating at a fast-food restaurant, there was a net increase of total energy intake (194.49 kcal), saturated fat (3.48 g), sugar (3.95 g) and sodium (296.38 mg). Eating at a full-service restaurant was also associated with an energy intake (205.21 kcal), and with higher intake of saturated fat (2.52 g) and sodium (451.06 mg).

Individual characteristics moderated the impact of restaurant food consumption. Net energy intake was larger for black adults compared with their white and Hispanic counterparts and greater for middle-income v. high-income adults.

The researchers say the larger adverse effect they measured on energy intake for some lower socio-economic and minority populations has policy implications. They say efforts to improve diet and reduce energy intake from restaurant sources could actually help to reduce racial and socio-economic disparities in Americans' diets.

© Goran Bogicevic - Fotolia.comFast-food restaurants take a lot of blame for the U.S. obesity epidemic but a new study weighs in with the news tha...

Researchers: exercise, not calories, is key to weight loss

The drop in Americans' physical activity has been dramatic

For people trying to lose weight, it has been the eternal question? Is exercise more important or is reducing calories?

A group of health researchers appears to come down on the side of exercise. Their new study, published in the American Journal of Medicine, searched for the primary cause of obesity.

These Stanford University researchers started with the fact that there has been a significant increase in the average body mass index (BMI) over the last 20 years. They determined there has also been a dramatic decrease in physical exercise over that same period.

Women increasingly sedentary

But the average calorie intake has remained about the same. Therefore, they conclude that a sedentary lifestyle – more than diet – is largely responsible for people being overweight or obese.

Some of the data the researchers analyzed is alarming. The number of U.S. women who reported no physical activity surged from 11.4% in 1994 to 43.5% in 2010. Average BMI increased among all groups over those 16 years, with the biggest increase among young women ages 18-39.

"These changes have occurred in the context of substantial increases in the proportion of adults reporting no leisure-time physical activity, but in the absence of any significant population-level changes in average daily caloric intake," said lead investigator Uri Ladabaum, of the Stanford University School of Medicine. "At the population level, we found a significant association between the level of leisure-time physical activity, but not daily caloric intake, and the increases in both BMI and waist circumference."

Misplaced blame

The debate over the obesity epidemic has largely focused on the food and beverage industries, with high-calorie foods and sugary beverages getting the lion's share of the blame for America's expanding waistline. But the researchers suggest the blame is misplaced.

"Our findings do not support the popular notion that the increase of obesity in the United States can be attributed primarily to sustained increase over time in the average daily caloric intake of Americans," Ladabaum said. "Although the overall trends in obesity in the United States are well appreciated and obesity prevalence may be stabilizing, our analyses highlight troublesome trends in younger adults, in women, and in abdominal obesity prevalence, as well as persistent racial/ethnic disparities."

While a healthy, nutritious diet is important to both weight control and overall health, the exercise side of the equation continues to get more attention. The Stanford researchers aren't the only ones who want to get Americans up off the couch.

Affects cardiofitness levels

Cardiologists at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas have now linked sedentary behavior with lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Writing in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings, they claim two hours of sitting can be just as harmful as 20 minutes of exercise is beneficial.

It's just the latest research to sound an alarm about too much sitting. A 2011 Canadian study linked prolonged sitting to an elevated cancer risk. A 2012 Australian study linked sitting with an early death.

A Kaiser Permanente study earlier this year showed prolonged sedentary behavior in men led to significantly higher risk of heart attack.

Unanswered questions

But why isn't exactly clear.

“Our data suggest that sedentary behavior may increase risk through an impact on lower fitness levels, and that avoiding sedentary behavior throughout the day may represent an important companion strategy to improve fitness and health, outside of regular exercise activity,” said Dr. Jarett Berry, senior author of the UT Southwestern Medical Center study.

For people stuck at their desks 8 hours a day, this may not sound like good news. But the research team offers some tips; shift positions frequently; get up and stretch from time to time; when on the phone, stand up and pace around.

If you get short breaks during the day, use them to walk around. Use the stairs instead of the elevator.

“We also found that when sitting for prolonged periods of time, any movement is good movement, and was also associated with better fitness,” said Dr. Jacquelyn Kulinski, one of the authors.

For people trying to lose weight, it has been the eternal question? Is exercise more important or is reducing calories?A group of health researchers appe...

More bang for the buck from your weight loss plan

It's not the length of your workout, it's what you do during it

Consumers spend millions of dollars on gym memberships and weight loss programs but not everyone has something to show for it. If results come slowly or not at all it's easy to get discouraged and give up.

Very often people jump from one diet and exercise fad to the next in hopes it will pay off.

Paul Arciero, an exercise scientist at Skidmore College, thinks most people simply aren't maximizing their exercise effort. It's not that they aren't spending enough time and effort, he says. They haven't found the right combination.

In a report in the Journal of Applied Physiology, Arciero and his research team say it's the quality of the exercise that's important, not the quantity. They reached that conclusion based on the results of a study of adults between the ages of 36 and 57.


They argue that when it comes to a workout, a multi-dimensional exercise regimen provides the best results. That includes resistance exercise, interval sprint exercise, stretching – such as yoga or pilates -- and endurance exercise.

Resistance training is “carrying a load,” or lifting weights. It can be done with free weights or with machines at the gym. It is important because it builds and maintains muscles, promoting healthy metabolism.

Interval sprint exercise is a workout in which you mix a moderate walk with a more intense jog or sprint.

In 2012 researchers at the Researchers at the University of Colorado found sprint interval exercise burned more calories in a shorter period of time.

They have found that exercisers can burn as many as 200 extra calories in as little as 2.5 minutes of concentrated effort a day —- as long as they intersperse longer periods of easy recovery in a practice known as sprint interval training.


Stretching is important before and after vigorous exercise so you don't damage muscles. But it can also promote a healthy weight because it promotes flexibility. According to the Mayo Clinic, people with flexibility in their joints tend to be more active.

Endurance exercise are any activities that step up your breathing and heart rate for longer periods of time. Walking, jogging, swimming, raking, sweeping, dancing, and playing tennis are good examples.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends doing it gradually, starting with as little as 5 minutes at a time before working up to about 30 minutes a day.

Arciero says a workout routine employing all 4 exercises will produce better results that using just 1. The final ingredient, he adds, is the right diet.

Arciero suggests adding moderate amounts of protein to your diet throughout the day to decrease total and abdominal fat while increasing lean body mass.

“It’s very difficult to just lift weights, or only do the treadmill or the elliptical machine and be healthy,” Arciero said. ”Your exercise regimen needs to encompass as much of what makes you a fully integrated living person as possible.”

Consumers spend billions of dollars on gym memberships and weight loss programs but not everyone has something to show for it. If results come slowly or no...

Study finds cause of obesity: too much food!

Seriously, RAND study finds easy access to inexpensive food of all kinds is driving obesity epidemic

Americans know more about nutrition than ever before. Despite the sluggish economy, most are well able to afford to buy fresh, healthful food. And, thanks to constantly evolving efficiencies in agriculture, marketing and transportation, there is plenty of food available in just about any form anytime we want it.

It's that last item that may hold the clue to the continuing epidemic of obesity in the U.S. and other Western nations, a new RAND study finds.

After all, it's not just one group that's the problem -- we're all getting fatter. Old, young, educated, not so educated, active, sedentary, rich, poor, black, white and brown, we've been getting fatter at about the same rate for the past 25 years. 

More food, more often

Since 1970, the average per capita consumption of calories of Americans has risen by about 20 percent, while at the same time there has been a sharp drop in the cost of food as a proportion of disposable income, according to a report published online by the journal CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

"Not only has food been getting cheaper, but it is easier to acquire and easier to prepare," said Roland Sturm, lead author of the report and a senior economist at RAND, a nonprofit research organization. "It's not just that we may be eating more high-calorie food, but we are eating more of all types of food."

Analyzing economic factors that contribute to obesity, Sturm and co-author Ruopeng An of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign found that weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups and geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups. The findings suggest that the cause of obesity is driven by environmental factors that affect all groups, not just a few.

The RAND researchers say that Americans now have the cheapest food in history, when measured as a fraction of disposal income. During the 1930s, American spent about one-quarter of their disposal income on food, dropping to one-fifth during the 1950s. Today, Americans spend about one-tenth of their disposable income on food.

"Not only has the cost of food dropped, but it has become even more available," An said. "So a smaller share of Americans' disposable income now buys many more calories."

Meanwhile, Sturm and An say that effective economic policies to curb obesity remain elusive.

Imposing taxes on foods with low-nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as might subsidies or discounts for healthier foods. But political and popular support for such approaches has been low.

"The high cost of healthy food may not be the problem as far as obesity is concerned, rather it is the excess availability and affordability of all types of food," Sturm said. "We need to consider strategies that replace calorie-dense foods with fruits and vegetables, rather than just add fruits and vegetables to the diet."

US obesity epidemic making all segments of the nation fatter, study findsThe nation's obesity epidemic is striking all groups of Americans, affecting tho...

Are statin users developing a false sense of security?

Study finds they're consuming more fat and calories than 10 years ago

Statins are the drugs that many millions of us take to control cholesterol, in an effort to prevent heart disease, stroke and other serious health problems.

The drugs are amazingly effective but a new study says the people taking them may be developing a false sense of security -- sort of like drivers who think their airbags and anti-lock brakes make it OK to drive recklessly.

That's the suggestions of a new study from UCLA, which suggests that people who took statins in the 2009–10 year were consuming more calories and fat than those who used statins 10 years earlier. There was no similar increase in caloric and fat intake among non–stain users during that decade, researchers said.

In 1999–2000, statin users were consuming fewer calories and less fat than individuals who didn't take these medications, but that is no longer the case, the researchers said. Increases in body mass index — a measure of obesity that considers body weight and height — were greater for statin users than for non-users.

"We believe that this is the first major study to show that people on statins eat more calories and fat than people on those medications did a decade earlier," said the study's primary investigator, Takehiro Sugiyama, who led the research while a visiting scholar in the division of general internal medicine and health services research at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.

"Statins are used by about one-sixth of adults. We may need to reemphasize the importance of dietary modification for those who are taking these medications, now that obesity and diabetes are important problems in society."

Gluttony in the Time of Statins

"[E]ating more fat, especially saturated fat, will lead to higher cholesterol levels, which will undermine the effect of statins and may lead to unnecessary cost of medications," Sugiyama said. "Being overweight also increases the risk of diabetes and hypertension, which also are risk factors for heart disease and stroke.

"Ethical considerations should be included in the discussion. We believe that when physicians prescribe statins, the goal is to decrease patients' cardiovascular risks that cannot be achieved without medications, not to empower them to put butter on steaks."

The study, subtitled "Gluttony in the Time of Statins?", is published online in the peer-reviewed journal JAMA Internal Medicine


For the study, the researchers used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare fat and caloric intake among statin users and non-users in 1999–2000 and 2009–10. They found that caloric intake among statin users had risen by 9.6 percent over that decade and that fat consumption had jumped by 14.4 percent. In contrast, caloric and fat intake by non–statin users did not change significantly during the 10-year period.

Statin-users ate roughly 180 kilogram calories less each day and 9 grams of fat less each day than non-users in 1999–2000. But as a result of increases over the decade, the researchers observed no difference in caloric and fat intake between statin users and non-users in 2009–10.

The differences may be explained by the fact that statin users simply don't feel the urgency to reduce their caloric and fat consumption or to lose weight the way statin users 10 years ago did, said Sugiyama, who is now a clinical fellow at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Japan. Also, doctors today may be more likely to prescribe statins for patients who eat and weigh more.

Statins are the drugs that many millions of us take to control cholesterol, in an effort to prevent heart disease, stroke and other serious health problems...

Looking for the best weight-loss program? Here are some guidelines

Weight loss expert JJ Virgin helps you find the weight-loss plan that's best for you

Just about everybody wants to lose weight, it seems. And there's no shortage of advice about how to do it. But for those looking for a safe, effective and affordable plan, it can be difficult to work through all the competing claims.

ConsumerAffairs contributing editor and weight loss expert JJ Virgin cuts through the confusion with her new buyer's guide that outlines the different kinds of weight loss programs, their features and the types of consumers most likely to benefit from them. 

Perhaps the most important feature of any plan is the food, Virgin says: "Ask yourself: Realistically, could you eat the foods on this plan more or less for the rest of your life?"

Besides taste, consumers should consider the cost and availability of competing food plans, as well as the potential for allergic reactions and sugar and sodium content. 

Crucial factors

Then there's the matter of meal plans. "If you prefer home-cooked meals, packaged shakes and shakes aren't going to work for you; likewise, if a plan demands elaborate meals and you need convenience, you'll probably struggle with the plan," says Virgin, author of the New York Times best-seller "The Virgin Diet: Drop 7 Foods, Lose 7 Pounds, Just 7 Days."

Long-term sustainability is another crucial factor.

"Maintaining fat loss is just as important as losing it. Does a plan provide the tools and strategies you need to stay lean for the long haul?" Virgin says, noting that many plans will produce a dramatic short-term loss while doing little to help keep pounds off over time.

No single plan is best for everyone, Virgin notes, discussing the varying needs of busy adults, college students, seniors, new moms and former athletes, among others.

She rates well-known plans for each type of consumer. For example, Virgin finds that Nutrisystem is best for college students, busy adults and new moms but no so good for dieters with food sensitivities and those on a budget. 

See the weight-loss buyers guide here.

Just about everybody wants to lose weight, it seems. And there's no shortage of advice about how to do it. But for those looking for a safe, effective and ...

Mediterranean-style diets are the most heart-healthy, study finds

Strictly low-fat diets may lower cholesterol but aren't shown to reduce cardiac deaths

Losing weight is one thing. Reducing the risk of coronary disease is another. And a study published in The American Journal of Medicine finds that when it comes to heart health, a whole diet approach, which focuses on increased intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts, and fish, has more evidence for reducing cardiovascular risk than strategies that focus exclusively on reduced dietary fat.

This new study explains that while strictly low-fat diets have the ability to lower cholesterol, they are not as conclusive in reducing cardiac deaths. By analyzing major diet and heart disease studies conducted over the last several decades, investigators found that participants directed to adopt a whole diet approach instead of limiting fat intake had a greater reduction in cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction.

Early investigations of the relationship between food and heart disease linked high levels of serum cholesterol to increased intake of saturated fat, and subsequently, an increased rate of coronary heart disease. This led to the American Heart Association's recommendation to limit fat intake to less than 30% of daily calories, saturated fat to 10%, and cholesterol to less than 300 mg per day.

"Nearly all clinical trials in the 1960s, 70s and 80s compared usual diets to those characterized by low total fat, low saturated fat, low dietary cholesterol, and increased polyunsaturated fats," says study co-author James E. Dalen, MD, MPH, Weil Foundation, and University of Arizona College of Medicine. "These diets did reduce cholesterol levels. However they did not reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease deaths."

Carefully analyzing studies and trials from 1957 to the present, investigators found that the whole diet approach, and specifically Mediterranean-style diets, are effective in preventing heart disease, even though they may not lower total serum or LDL cholesterol.

The Mediterranean-style diet is low in animal products and saturated fat, and encourages intake of monounsaturated fats found in nuts and olive oil. In particular, the diet emphasizes consumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, whole grains, and fish.

Losing weight is one thing. Reducing the risk of coronary disease is another. And a study published in The American Journal of Medicine finds that when it ...

Beware of lifetime gym memberships

The gym company's lifetime might be considerably shorter than your own

For all the undeniable health benefits of exercise and working out, we admit to taking a pretty dim view of long-term gym memberships. This is partly due to a flaw in human nature – rare indeed is the person with enough free time and willpower to visit the gym often enough to make the membership fees worthwhile (and if you have that much determination you probably don't need a gym membership to stay fit, anyway).

Furthermore, there's no way of knowing what the future will hold — that great deal on the gym down the street isn't so great when you have to move to a new state and are still stuck paying monthly membership fees. And a lifetime membership to a bankrupt gym is pretty much identical to no gym membership at all, except the latter option is free whereas the former can cost you a lot of money.

To pick an example at random: We recently heard complaints from two different people whose lifetime memberships to Bally Total Fitness proved useless after Bally closed. Lynn in Maryland kept an old out-of-state membership active just in case she needed it later, but by the time she did it proved useless:

“After having a lifetime membership that started back in the late 80's in Willow Grove, PA, and [paying] a small fortune for it, it was finally paid off and after moving to another state, I would receive a $5 yearly bill to keep it going.”

For several years, she paid that small annual fee without ever setting foot in the gym. Then what? “I just found out in December through a friend that Bally was sold ... I never got anything in the mail to me! I decided to go to the local LA Fitness and was told my membership had expired!”

Dismayed in Ohio

Consumers rate Bally Total Fitness

Glenn in Ohio was similarly dismayed when his local Bally was bought out by Red Fitness 24/7, which did not want to honor the old Bally lifetime memberships. “If you were paying $1 to $50 they want you to pay $79 plus 10% tax plus a $20.99 CIF so the new annual fee is $109. If you are between 50 and 100 they want $99 plus [tax and fees] so you will pay $130. They now have very upset members and will probably file a class action lawsuit for this also.”

If filed, such a class-action attempt would not be the first; in January 2012 some plaintiffs in northern Illinois filed suit (.pdf) against Bally and LA Fitness alleging violation of various state-level anti-fraud acts, specifically after Bally sold lifetime memberships to people just before selling the company to LA Fitness, which did not honor the old Bally contracts; instead, Bally lifetime membership holders were allegedly told their memberships were only valid at the nearest Bally some three hours away.

But that Illinois lawsuit wouldn't likely help people with complaints in Ohio, Maryland or Pennsylvania. Oddly enough, in December 2011, one month before the Illinois plantiffs filed that class action suit against Bally and LA Fitness, the Norristown Patch in Pennsylvania reported that, due to similar complaints from former Bally members, LA Fitness has henceforth decided to honor all former Bally membership agreements.

As of presstime, there exists a Facebook page dedicated to “Bally /LA Fitness Class Action Lawsuit.” But the most recent post, dated December 11, 2013, says this: “UPDATE: Page will be closing down soon” and includes more detail:

As you may recall, there were initially a number of different lawsuits against Bally’s Total Fitness and LA Fitness, including the federal action which we began in the Pennsylvania courts. A number of those lawsuits have been dismissed or withdrawn — including our case (Tobia, et al. v. Bally’s Total Fitness, et al). However, you are all still protected. You may choose to be included in one of the remaining lawsuits, and you always retain your right to proceed on your own, in your own lawsuit.

The remaining federal lawsuits, which we are aware of, are Grabianski v. Bally Total Fitness Holding Corporation, Case No. 12-C-284, pending in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, and Piegaro v. Bally Total Fitness Holding Corp., Case No. 3:12-cv-04595, pending in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey. …. Neither case has been certified as a class action lawsuit. Likewise, the federal courts have not seen fit to consolidate the cases for handling in one single location.... If either of these cases ever becomes a class action, you may be automatically included among the Plaintiffs who were damaged by Bally’s misconduct.”

Remember: this refers specifically to former Bally locations bought by LA Fitness. Thus far we've not found attempts at actual class-action suits against Red Fitness 24/7 – though a brief search of netted other Ohio residents and former Bally members with complaints similat to Glenn's.

We tried calling the specific Red Fitness gym that Glenn complained about, to ask what if any policy they had regarding former Bally  members, but nobody answered the phone.

If something like this happens to you, what can you do? The first step should be to complain to your state's Attorney General. Many AGs have taken action against gyms in recent years and may do so again if they get enough complaints.

You can find the AG in your state by typing "[your state] Attorney General" in your favorite search engine and then locating the site's complaint-submission page. 

For all the undeniable health benefits from exercise and working out, we admit to taking a pretty dim view of long-term gym memberships. This is partly due...

Top three risk factors for child obesity

Illinois study looks at 22 variables, finds top three risk factors

Most people think they know what causes kids to be overweight. They'll often name over-eating, fast food and lack of exercise as the primary villains.

But a new study from the University of Illinois, published in Childhood Obesity, looked at 22 variables and found three that emerged as the strongest predictors:

  1. inadequate sleep,
  2. a parental BMI that classifies the mom or dad as overweight or obese, and
  3. parental restriction of a child's eating in order to control his weight.

"What's exciting here is that these risk factors are malleable and provide a road map for developing interventions that can lead to a possible reduction in children's weight status," said Brent McBride, a U of I professor of human development and director of the university's Child Development Laboratory. "We should focus on convincing parents to improve their own health status, to change the food environment of the home so that healthy foods are readily available and unhealthy foods are not, and to encourage an early bedtime." 

The researchers reached their conclusions after compiling the results from an extensive survey distributed to 329 parent-child dyads recruited from child-care programs in east-central Illinois.

The survey yielded wide-ranging information on demographics, health histories of both child and parent, and pertinent feeding practices. Research assistants also did home visits with each participant, checking height and weight and taking further information about the parents' history. The data was then subjected to statistical analysis.

What to do

As a result of that analysis, McBride and U of I nutritional sciences graduate student Dipti A. Dev offer some recommendations for families.

Parents should recognize that their food preferences are being passed along to their children and that these tastes are established in the preschool years, Dev said.

"If you, as an adult, live in a food environment that allows you to maintain an elevated weight, remember that your child lives in that environment too. Similarly, if you are a sedentary adult, you may be passing on a preference for television watching and computer games instead of playing chasing games with your preschooler or playing in the park," she added.

Consider too that restricting your children's access to certain foods will only make them want those foods more, she said.

"If kids have never had a chance to eat potato chips regularly, they may overeat them when the food appears at a friend's picnic," McBride said.

Instead, work on changing the food environment in your home so that a wide variety of healthy choices such as fruits and vegetables are available while unhealthy options are not, he added.

"And remember that it takes a certain number of exposures to a food before a child will try it, let alone like it, so you have to offer it to them over and over and over again. And they have to see you eat it over and over," McBride noted.

Don't use food to comfort your children when they are hurt or disappointed, do allow your preschoolers to select their foods as bowls are passed at family-style meals (no pre-plating at the counter — it discourages self-regulation), and encourage all your children to be thoughtful about what they are eating, the researcher said.

Most people think they know what causes kids to be overweight. They'll often name over-eating, fast food and lack of exercise as the primary villains.But...

Trying to lose weight? Take an avocado to lunch

Eating half an avocado at lunch may help fill you up and reduce your desire to snack

If you're trying to lose weight, you already know that healthy a healthy, low-fat, low-calorie lunch is a good start -- but it's what happens after lunch, namely snacking, that often caues problems.

Some potentially helpful advice comes from a studypublished in the November issue of Nutrition Journal. It found that adding half of a fresh avocado to lunch may have helped healthy, overweight people feel more satisfied and reduced their desire to eat following a meal. 

The study compared the effects of incorporating a fresh avocado into a lunch — either by replacing other foods or by simply adding it to the meal —  to the effects of eating a standard lunch to determine how avocado consumption would influence satiety, blood sugar and insulin response and subsequent food intake. The subjects were 26 healthy, overweight adults.

Researchers found that participants who added half of a fresh avocado to their lunch reported a significantly decreased desire to eat by 40 percent over a three-hour period, and by 28 percent over a five-hour period after the meal, compared to their desire to eat after a standard lunch without avocado. In addition, they reported increased feelings of satisfaction by 26 percent over the three hours following the meal.

"Satiety is an important factor in weight management, because people who feel satisfied are less likely to snack between meals," said Joan Sabaté, MD, DrPH, Chair of the Department of Nutrition who led the research team at Loma Linda University. "We also noted that though adding avocados increased participants' calorie and carbohydrate intake at lunch, there was no increase in blood sugar levels beyond what was observed after eating the standard lunch. This leads us to believe that avocados potential role in blood sugar management is worth further investigation."

While the findings were generally positive, more research is needed to determine whether the conclusions drawn from this study can be applied to the general public. However, the results do provide promising clues and a basis for future research to determine avocados' effect on satiety, glucose and insulin response.

"These research findings provide support for the emerging benefits of avocados," said Nikki Ford, PhD, Director of Nutrition at the Hass Avocado Board (HAB). "These results further complement our research efforts in weight management and diabetes as well as our continued work to explore the many benefits that fresh avocados have to offer when consumed in everyday healthy eating plans."

The study was funded by the Hass Avocado Board.

If you're trying to lose weight, you already know that healthy a healthy, low-fat, low-calorie lunch is a good start -- but it's what happens after lunch, ...

Study finds health costs rise steadily as weight increases

"Fat and healthy?" The research doesn't support the idea

Need another reason to shed some pounds? Here's one: Researchers at Duke Medicine have found that medical costs rise steadily as the body mass index (BMI) goes up.

Even when the BMI is in the high normal range -- 19 or so -- medical costs were higher than they were for thinner people, the study published in the journal Obesity found. 

"Our findings suggest that excess fat is detrimental at any level," said lead author Truls Østbye, M.D., Ph.D., professor of community and family medicine at Duke and professor of health services and systems research at Duke-National University of Singapore.

BMI is a measurement of a person's weight adjusted for his or her height, and can be used to screen for possible weight-related health problems. A healthy or normal BMI is 19-24, while overweight is 25-29 and obese is 30 and above. For example, a 5-foot-6-inch person who weighs 117.5 pounds has a BMI of 19, while a person of the same height weighing 279 pounds has a BMI of 45.

You can calculate your BMI online

Fat and healthy?

The findings may give pause to those who, like New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie, argue that it's possible to be both healthy and obese. 

Østbye said the study was motivated partly by research published earlier this year in the Journal of the American Medical Association, using death data from several large population studies, which concluded that while higher degrees of obesity were associated with higher mortality rates, being overweight or even slightly obese was actually linked with lower mortality.

Since these findings questioned the general belief that high body mass leads to poor health outcomes, Østbye and his colleagues sought to better understand the rates of obesity-related disease, or morbidity, by measuring health care utilization and costs.

Using health insurance claims data for 17,703 Duke employees participating in annual health appraisals from 2001 to 2011, the researchers related costs of doctors' visits and use of prescription drugs to employees' BMIs.

Measuring costs related to doctors' visits and prescriptions, the researchers observed that the prevalence of obesity-related diseases increased gradually across all BMI levels. In addition to diabetes and hypertension -- the two diseases most commonly associated with being overweight or obese -- the rates of nearly a dozen other disease categories also grew with increases in BMI. Cardiovascular disease was associated with the largest dollar increase per unit increase in BMI.

The average annual health care costs for a person with a BMI of 19 was found to be $2,368; this grew to $4,880 for a person with a BMI of 45 or greater. Women in the study had higher overall medical costs across all BMI categories, but men saw a sharper increase in medical costs the higher their BMIs rose.

"The fact that we see the combined costs of pharmacy and medical more than double for people with BMIs of 45 compared with those of 19 suggests that interventions on weight are warranted," said Marissa Stroo, a co-investigator on the study.

Health care costs steadily increase with body mass IMAGE: Analyzing health care claims from Duke employees, Duk...

Study: Overthinking food choices could lead to weight gain

Sometimes politeness can backfire

If our distant ancestors could see us now they’d be flabbergasted and frustrated by how we managed to take a biological process as simple and basic as eating and turn it into an overcomplicated overanalyzed mess.

Granted, our modern world does contain some culinary complications our ancestors never had to handle: their primary food-related health problems mostly involved malnutrition and famine, whereas ours center around too much access to too many temptingly fattening foods.

Even so, we confess to a bit of head-shaking when we read this press release from Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business, about another eating-habits research study. The press release had the headline “Political correctness could affect holiday weight gain.”

In the context of the article, it’s obvious that “political correctness” here actually means “being hyper-vigilant against the possibility of offending someone due to their weight.” Indeed, the actual research study doesn’t mention political correctness at all, but instead has the title Matching Choices to Avoid Offending Stigmatized Group Members.

The gist of the research seems to be that, when people are asked to select food both for themselves and for others, and are given a choice between healthy or unhealthy food options (wheat crackers or chocolate-chip cookies, respectively), those choices are likely to change based on whether the various people are overweight or of normal weight.

As the press release says:

… in similar, additional studies, participants told researchers they thought it would be offensive either to give an overweight person healthy food and then take unhealthy food for themselves or, conversely, to give an overweight person unhealthy food and then take healthy food for themselves.

"This suggests that if you are heading back to the buffet to cut a piece of pumpkin pie for your overweight uncle, you might also cut a larger piece than normal for yourself, so you don't hurt his feelings," [researcher Peggy] Liu said.

We must be doing buffets and dinner parties wrong; in buffet situations we only select food for children too young to do so themselves, and at parties we always let our guests pretty much choose what they want from whatever options we’ve made available. That said, we do indeed think it would be offensive if we not only abandoned this practice, but made a point of serving delicious cookies to our skinny guests and whole-wheat crackers to the plump ones.

Despite this, the study does make some potentially good points regarding how your own personal food choices could be affected by what others are eating—such as eating more pie than you intended so your uncle’s serving looks smaller. It might be hard to avoid overthinking such matters, because when you get right down to it, we’re evolutionarily hard-wired to have a bit of a Goldilocks fetish where food is concerned—especially fat, sugar and salt, which collectively bear the bulk of the blame for modern obesity problems.

Because our bodies need all of these things to survive and be healthy: eat too little, you can get sick or even die. Eat too much, and you can also get sick or even die. Only when everything’s Just Right do you feel just right too, and we’d tell you how to eat Just Right according to the latest nutritional scientific consensus, but new research will probably make our advice obsolete by next week, so we’ll keep eating according to our old rule: A little bit of everything, but not too much of anything. (Except maybe at a Thanksgiving feast.)

If our distant ancestors could see us now they’d be flabbergasted and frustrated by how we managed to take a biological process as simple and basic a...

Does eating at your desk make you fat?

Another possible factor in modern obesity rates

News flash for weight-conscious office workers: eating at your desk makes you more likely to gain weight than leaving your desk for an official lunch break — though not for the reasons you might think.

According to an unspecified “survey” mentioned in the British Daily Mail tabloid, eating “al desko” (their pun, not ours) leads to increased weight gain, not just from the inactivity of sitting at your desk all day, but mainly because desk-eaters are more likely to, for example, wash down chocolate and potato chips with a Coke, in lieu of eating healthier, more nutritious food.

Psychologically, it appears, when people can’t take a break from their workday routine and get the chance to recharge their batteries (so to speak), it makes us more likely to “reward” ourselves in other way — like eating tasty but unhealthy junk food.

The survey focused exclusively on British workers and unhealthy British meals (where the average American is concerned, it doesn’t matter how many grams of fat are to be found in a carrot-chutney-with-Wensleydale sandwich from London’s Marks and Spencer) but people in both countries share similar pressures to juggle evermore-hectic work schedules.

Yet blaming office work for expanding waistlines might not tell the whole story. Last May, a Gallup-Healthways survey of American workers found that the jobs with the highest employee-obesity rates weren’t desk jobs, but the transportation, maintenance, repair and service industries, whereas the lowest obesity rates were to be found among doctors, teachers, business owners and other professionals. In other words: the lower the average educational level in a given field, the greater the risk of obesity among its workers.

The poverty connection

And in both America and Britain, there appears to be a strong correlation between obesity and poverty, since high-fat, high-calorie processed foods tend to be cheaper than healthier, less-fattening alternatives.

So: being an educated professional with a desk job might make you fat. Being an uneducated worker with a service or retail job might make you fat. Exposure to modern environmental pollutants might do the trick; after all, it’s not just modern people getting fatter, but modern animals, too.

Indeed, our own evolutionary history conspires to make us gain weight — though we all live in a modern technological society where food is abundantly available, we still have the bodies of cavemen hunter-gatherers wired to crave fat and sugar — which are very rare in wild plants and animals, but extremely common in modern processed food.

Since we’re not willing to drop out of modern society and live in some remote wilderness, what can we do to offset all these fat-making factors? There’s no simple, easy answer (if we had one, we could sell it and get rich), but we know of a good start: if you must eat at your desk every day, at least put down the junk food and replace it with some fruit.

News flash for weight-conscious office workers: eating at your desk makes you more likely to gain weight than leaving your desk for an official lunch break...

Feast vs. famine: blame evolution for the obesity epidemic

Caveman bodies counterproductive in modern society

If you wonder why so many Americans (and other industrialized-world citizens) are getting fat these days, the answer is probably quite simple: human evolution is lagging behind human technology. We live in an industrially and technologically advanced world where food is abundant, yet still have the bodies of Cro-Magnon hunter gatherers living under constant threat of famine.

For example: last April the journal Obesity published a study about late-night snack cravings: namely, why are they so common? If you’re trying to lose weight—or just avoid gaining any—then eating before bedtime is the worst thing you can do, because your sleeping body takes those calories and converts them almost immediately into fat.

Obesity discovered evidence suggesting that our body’s circadian rhythms are naturally inclined to make us feel hungry at night.

Dr. Steven Shea, from the Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology at Oregon Health & Science University, wrote: “We found with this study that the internal circadian system also likely plays a role in today's obesity epidemic because it intensifies hunger at night …. it seems likely that the internal circadian system helps with efficient food storage. While this may have been valuable throughout evolution, nowadays it is likely to contribute to the national epidemic of obesity.”

Age of abundance 

Packing on some extra body fat tonight is a very good idea when you know you might not eat at all tomorrow—and until only a few generations ago, that was the human status quo. Only in an age of abundance, when people’s main calorie-related problem is “We eat too many of them,” does the urge to eat just before bed become fantastically counterproductive.

Of course, this was far from the only study suggesting our own evolutionary history is conspiring to expand our waistlines.

Last month, researchers at Yale suggested that eating low-calorie artificial sweeteners might paradoxically make you fatter than full-calorie sugar—because when your brain tells you “We’re seriously craving some sugar right now,” sugar is the only thing that will satisfy that craving. And, unfortunately, even if you personally are a genius, your brain still isn’t smart enough to figure out “Instead of generating fresh sugar cravings, maybe I should do something with the extra poundage bulging around my owner’s waistline.”

So when you get annoyed by those late-night snack cravings, just remember: it’s because your brain and body are trying to save you from starving to death. (Which does not make it any easier for us to fit into our old blue jeans, but—well, it’s the thought that counts, right?)  

If you wonder why so many Americans (and other industrialized-world citizens) are getting fat these days, the answer is probably quite simple: human evolut...

How to avoid putting on pounds over the holidays

If you can survive Halloween, you've got a chance

The holidays can be a dangerous time for people trying to control their weight. There are parties with food and drink, celebratory dinners with family and friends and plenty of cookies, candy and pastries.

You can easily consume more sugar between October and January than you do the other nine months combined, unless you exercise a little self-control.

The temptation starts with Halloween. In case you haven't noticed stores putting out their Halloween displays around Labor Day. At the grocery store in early October you may be tempted to pick up several bags of Halloween candy.

Willpower needed

Unless you have exceptional willpower, that's a bad idea. Once a bag gets opened it's easy to start snacking, running through your candy stash well before October 31st. Halloween candy, it turns out, is a slippery slope that can propel you into the holidays on the wrong nutritional foot.

It can be even worse at work, with co-workers bringing in orange-colored candy, cake, donuts and cupcakes. Health experts Dian Griesel, Ph.D., and Tom Griesel, who've written books on nutrition and weight control, suggest bringing up your concerns at work, letting co-workers know you're trying to avoid temptation and extra weight gain. Gently suggest that they keep candy and other goodies out of your sight and reach.

But that doesn't mean you can't get into the spirit of things. The Griesels suggest brewing a pot of pumpkin-flavored coffee or tea to share or bringing in fruit or low-cal desserts.

On to Thanksgiving

Once you get past Halloween there's Thanksgiving to contend with, and food seems to play a bigger and bigger role in celebrations the closer you get to New Year's Day. Nutritionists at the Cleveland Clinic offer a number of tips that can allow you to enjoy yourself without packing on the pounds. Being aware of the high-calorie content of the food you are offered is a first step.

“Even though it’s hard to resist temptations all around you, there are simple steps you can take that can keep the extra holiday pounds off,” said Julia Renee Zumpano, a registered dietitian at the Cleveland Clinic. 

Among the tips – never go to a holiday party hungry. You'll find it much harder to control yourself. In fact, during the holidays make it a point to eat balanced, nutritious meals each day. You'll be less hungry and less likely to give in to temptation.

Just a bite

A particular treat may look delicious and just because it's fattening, it doesn't mean you can't try it. But just take a bite and discard the rest. Most of us would think of that as wasteful but in this case, you're simply preserving your waistline.

When you sit down at a holiday dinner, eat more vegetables, fruit and salad and less turkey, ham, beef and stuffing. And by all means, skip the gravy and sauces.

Go easy on the alcohol. A glass of wine or beer contains about 100 calories. An ounce of distilled spirits, about the same. By substituting club soda for two holiday drinks you save about 200 calories.

Finally, don't forget to exercise, burning off some of those extra calories you will inevitably consume. Many people wait until January to resolve to get into shape. Don't wait, start now when it can do you some real good and before the damage is done.

According to the Mayo Clinic the typical holiday weight gain is probably less than five pounds, which doesn't sound like much. The problem is, that weight is almost never lost -- so it adds up to 50 pounds every ten years or so. Being mindful of your eating all year round – but especially during the holidays – is the best way to keep your weight at a healthy level.

The holidays can be a dangerous time for people trying to control their weight. There are parties with food and drink, celebratory dinners with family and ...

Does pollution make you fat?

Reputable research studies suggest it does

Americans—along with everybody else in the industrialized world—have been growing fatter over the last couple of generations. But why? Dozens of different causes have been suggested: It’s because food is less expensive and more readily available than ever before in history, so we generally eat more than our ancestors did. Or it’s because of sedentary lifestyles—our televisions, computers, desk jobs, lengthy car commutes and all the other reasons people sit still for hours at a time, rather than move around and burn calories.

These factors surely contribute to our expanding waistlines. But might environmental pollution also be a culprit? Because it’s not just people getting fatter in the modern world—animals are, too. Our pets, our laboratory animals, even the unwanted feral rats infesting our cities are all bigger than they were in our grandparents’ day, and maybe some of this comes from chemical pollutants that imitate various “fat” hormones naturally produced by our bodies.

Unlikely though this might sound, over the past decade and more there’s been a wide variety of research studies which seem to support the theory. Over at ProPublica, reporter David Epstein collected and summarized a sample range of these reports in a thought-provoking investigative article titled “Do These Chemicals Make Me Look Fat?”

Pet obesity

To share just a couple of statistics: the National Pet Obesity Survey claims that over 50 percent of American cats and dogs are obese. Also, there exists a “National Pet Obesity Survey.”

Despite having pretty much the same diet and lifestyle as they ever did, American laboratory rats have grown steadily fatter over the last 30 years (which is several generations, for rats). This might, possibly, be blamed on other factors present in a laboratory environment (including exposure to antibiotics), except that feral rats studied in Baltimore have also grown fatter—without exposure to antibiotics or other factors present in a lab-rat lifestyle.

But today’s environments—whether natural, urban or laboratory—are all contaminated by trace amounts of various pollutants, including growth hormones fed to livestock, and toxic ingredients in widely used insecticides, fungicides and other anti-pest poisons. These pollutants, in turn, can affect people’s (or animal’s) bodily systems in a variety of ways, either mimicking or suppressing the functions of various hormones.

As obesity researcher Emily Dhurandhar said to ProPublica, “Obesity really is more complex than couch potatoes and gluttons.”

Americans—along with everybody else in the industrialized world—have been growing fatter over the last couple of generations. But why? Dozens o...

Burger King unveils lower-calorie "Satisfries"

They're fried in a new batter that doesn't absorb as much oil

Face it, it's pretty hard to give up French fries. So Burger King is hoping its new lower-calorie fries will find a following.

The company says its new "Satisfries" have 70 fewer calories than a same-sized serving of their regular fries -- 270 compared to 340. The ingredients are the same -- potato, oil and batter.

The difference, Burger King says, is in the batter, which absorbs less oil and, therefore, less fat and fewer calories. 

This isn't really a new idea. For decades, food manufacturers have been producing lower-fat, lower-calorie versions of what are basically indulent foods -- ice cream, cookies and so forth.

It's a way of having your cake and eating it too, as the saying goes. BK is hoping to lure customers who want to cut back on calories and fat but don't want to give up the satisfaction of munching on a new crispy French fry.

Burger King isn't saying exactly what it did to the batter, in hopes of staying ahead of the competition for at least a few months.

The new fries have a different shape -- they're crinkle-cut, whereas Burger King's regular fries are straight-edged. The company says the shape has nothing to do with the caloric content; it's just intended to help customers and employees tell which kind of fry they're eating.

Face it, it's pretty hard to give up French fries. So Burger King is hoping its new lower-calorie fries will find a following....

On a diet? Sugar might be better than low-calorie sweetener

Studies suggest artificial sweeteners won't satisfy sugar cravings

If you’re trying to lose weight or keep from gaining any, eating actual sugar might be better than making do with low-calorie artificial sweeteners.

So says Yale University professor Ivan de Araulo, in a press release published on Sept. 22. De Araulo was lead researcher of a study which seems to indicate that your brain is much harder to fool than your tongue—however sweet an artificial sugar-free might taste, it won’t satisfy your brain’s food-craving center as effectively as genuine sugar.

With all the “sugar makes you fat” and “beware diabetes” warning stories you see in the news, sometimes it’s easy to forget that there’s a valid biological reason humans evolved to crave sugar: it’s a concentrated source of food energy. Sugar isn’t inherently bad for your health; excessive amounts of sugar is.

Fewer calories

The logic behind using artificial sweeteners in lieu of sugar is that the fake stuff has fewer calories than sucrose or fructose; thus, the weight-conscious person can satisfy their craving for sweets while consuming far less calories.

The problem, as suggested by de Araulo’s study (among others),  is that artificial sweeteners might not satisfy that craving after all. As de Araulo wrote in his press release, “The study identified a specific physiological brain signal that is critical for determining choice between sugars and sweeteners. This signal regulates dopamine levels – a chemical necessary for reward signalling in the brain – and only arises when sugar is broken down into a form where it is usable as fuel for cells of the body to function.”

In other words: when you have a sugar craving, what eventually satisfies that craving is not the sensation of sweetness on your tongue, but the presence of dopamine in your brain. And, regardless of what sweet flavors stimulate your taste buds, your brain won’t generate that dopamine unless it gets some genuine sugar to work with.

Yale and de Araulo are far from the first researchers to suggest that low-calorie sweeteners might paradoxically result in weight gain caused by increased food cravings; as early as 2008, we noted that

“Psychologists at Purdue University's Ingestive Behavior Research Center reported that, compared with rats that ate yogurt sweetened with sugar, those given yogurt sweetened with zero-calorie saccharin later consumed more calories, gained more weight, put on more body fat, and didn't make up for it by cutting back later.

“Authors Susan Swithers, PhD, and Terry Davidson, PhD, theorize that by breaking the connection between a sweet sensation and high-calorie food, the use of saccharin changes the body’s ability to regulate intake.”

Five years later, de Araulo and his team made the similar observation that “humans frequently ingesting low-calorie sweet products in a state of hunger or exhaustion may be more likely to 'relapse' and choose high calorie alternatives in the future.”

The solution, according to de Araulo, might not be to cut out the use of artificial sweetener altogether, but to combine them with actual sugar in amounts sufficient to satisfy the brain’s craving for it. “The results suggest that a 'happy medium' could be a solution; combining sweeteners with minimal amounts of sugar so that energy metabolism doesn't drop, while caloric intake is kept to a minimum.”

Your brain is much harder to fool than your tongue...

Why breakfast is important

Eating this meal may help you control your weight

“Three square meals a day,” the saying goes. But how many of us actually eat three meals a day? Specifically, how many of us eat breakfast every day?

In many households, mornings are a chaotic time. Kids have to get off to school and parents usually set off in different directions, sometimes facing long commutes to get to their jobs. Who has time for breakfast?

For decades nutritionists have called breakfast “the most important meal of the day” and that hasn't changed over the years.

Despite that, a recent survey conducted for the California Almond Board found 50% of women said they skip breakfast on busy mornings. Some said they don't eat because they just aren't hungry in the mornings.

Mood, weight, well-being

"Ditching breakfast can affect your mood, weight and well-being," said nutritionist Bonnie Taub-Dix, author of "Read It Before You Eat It." "Breakfast helps fill up our minds and bodies after we've gone without food for several hours while sleeping."

The American Diabetes Association has also weighed in on the issue of breakfast, pointing out it usually ends the longest period most people go without nourishment. If the last thing you eat is at 8 p.m. and then sleep to 7 a.m., that's eleven hours of fasting.

“Your body enters into a prolonged fasting state,” the association says in an article on its website. “It starts to believe that you won’t be eating any time soon. When you finally eat lunch, your body stores it as fat because it thinks, 'I’d better save this for later. I don’t know when the next meal will come.' That, of course, leads to weight gain. When you break the fast in the morning, on the other hand, your body can use that food to power you through the day.” 

Eat the right things

Nutritionists generally say that people who eat breakfast tend to eat healthier throughout the day. And eating the right things for breakfast can be just as important as eating the morning meal.

Eating a huge breakfast of eggs, sausage and pancakes – typical in the past – is not going to be helpful, unless you are preparing for a day of hard, manual labor, like plowing the back 40. Even then it probably isn't the best choice. Starting the day with a lot of calories probably means you'll consume a lot more before the sun sets.

Dr. Heather Leidy, a nutrition expert at the University of Missouri, says the best breakfasts are low in carbs and fat and high in protein and fiber. Fiber will fill you up and keep you from being hungry later on. And less is more. A healthy breakfast, she says, should really be no more than 500 calories.

Eating a healthy breakfast is particularly important for children and adults with chronic health conditions. According to Katherine Zeratsky, at the Mayo Clinic, it can also help people lose and control their weight. In addition to keeping you from getting hungry later in the day it will also boost your energy level. 

Healthy breakfast foods

What makes for a healthy breakfast? According to the John's Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, you should sample from the bread and grain, dairy and fruit or vegetable food groups. When you have little time for breakfast, have fruit, non-fat yogurt or granola bars on hand. 

You can also be creative. There's no law saying your have to consume traditional breakfast food first thing in the morning. If you have leftovers from a healthy dinner the night before and the mood strikes you, there's no reason you can't have warmed up salmon and vegetables for breakfast.

Cold pizza, on the other hand, is probably a bad idea.

“Three square meals a day,” the saying goes. But how many of us actually eat three meals a day? Specifically, how many of us eat breakfast ever...

What makes us fat? Germs, researchers say

Having the right intestinal microbe mixture can mean the difference between being lean or obese

Lots of things can make us fat -- too much food, too much sitting around and so forth. But researchers at Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) say there's another factor, one you might not of: the microbes in your gut.

Working in mice transplanted with intestinal microbes from lean and obese twins, a new WUSTL study shows that altering the microbial mix prevents mice destined for obesity from gaining weight and fat or developing related metabolic problems linked to insulin resistance.

But there’s a caveat: Microbes associated with leanness can’t take up residence in mice with “obese” gut microbes unless the animals eat a healthy diet. The research is reported Sept. 6 in the journal Science.

“Eating a healthy diet encourages microbes associated with leanness to quickly become incorporated into the gut,” said senior author Jeffrey I. Gordon, MD, director of the Center for Genome Sciences & Systems Biology at Washington University.

“But a diet high in saturated fat and low in fruits and vegetables thwarts the invasion of microbes associated with leanness. This is important as we look to develop next-generation probiotics as a treatment for obesity,” Gordon said.

While the research may lead to effective new treatments in the future, for now the advice remains the same: eat your vegetables and move around a little.

The study

The research involved identical and fraternal female human twin pairs, ranging in age from 21 to 32, in which one twin is obese and the other lean. This stark weight disparity occurs in about 6 percent of twins and is more common among fraternal twins than those who are identical.

As part of the study, the twins’ gut microbes (captured from fecal samples) were transferred into mice that had been raised in a previously microbe-free environment. Because mice naturally eat each other’s feces, the researchers had a chance to observe what happens when a mouse carrying a collection of gut microbes from an obese twin is housed with another mouse carrying gut microbes from the lean twin.

Do the mice transfer microbes to one another through their feces, the researchers asked. And if so, which microbes ultimately take over?

The answer depends on diet.

If the animals ate a healthy diet low in saturated fat and high in fruits and vegetables, microbes from the lean twin invaded the gut of the mouse with the obese twin’s microbes, preventing weight gain and the development of metabolic problems associated with insulin resistance. In people, insulin resistance is associated with significant weight gain and typically is the first sign of metabolic problems that eventually can lead to diabetes.

In 2009, a study by Gordon and his colleagues indicated that the collections of microbes in the guts of obese people lack the diversity and richness of people who are lean. This observation was confirmed by the new research.

“We think the lack of diversity leaves open niches – or jobs, if you will – that can be filled by microbes associated with leanness,” he said. “Our results underscore the strong interactions between gut microbes and diet and help illustrate how unhealthy diets select against gut microbes associated with leanness.”

Lots of things can make us fat -- too much food, too much sitting around and so forth. But researchers at Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) s...

Do the math and lose weight

If you can keep track of calories you have a better chance of controlling your weight

More people are losing weight the old-fashioned way. They're simply being more aware and keeping track of what they eat. In the end, it's calories that make the difference.

While nutrition is key to good health, it's generally acknowledged that consuming too many calories – hundreds more than you burn each day – is a good way to pack on the pounds. That's one reason that many restaurants are being required to post calorie information on their menus.

A hungry consumer might want a triple burger with a large order of fries until they see how many calories that is. Armed with that information, they may opt for a small, single burger and a side order of fruit.

Increasingly, restaurants are getting on board. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF) recently reported member food and beverage companies have exceeded their goal of reducing 1.5 trillion calories in the marketplace in the United States.

“Our industry has an important role to play in helping people lead healthy lives and our actions are having a positive impact,” said Indra Nooyi, HWCF Chair, Chairman and CEO of PepsiCo. “We see continued opportunities to give consumers the choices they’re looking for and to work collaboratively with the public and non-profit sectors on initiatives that enable continued progress.”

Food providers under pressure

Restaurants, food processors and beverage companies have been under pressure as America's obesity problem has mushroomed over the last 30 years. McDonald's, for example, has responded with happy meals that include apple slices, salads and wraps, and began posting calorie information on menus before they were required to.

But that still hasn't silenced critics, nor did it spare CEO Don Thompson a recent scolding from a nine-year old girl, who stood up at a shareholders' meeting and accused his company of “tricking kids.”

Restaurants that post calorie information on their menus help consumers who want to maintain a limit on the number of calories they consume each day to stay on track. Previously, it has been difficult to know how much a restaurant meal bumped up your calorie intake.

When you eat at home it's much easier. Food nutrition labels state the calories per serving and if you total up the calories per part of a meal, you can keep track of your caloric intake.

More than just cutting calories

Nutritionists stress that restricting calories, while important, is only part of a healthy diet. There are good calories and bad calories, they say. Some foods give you more bang for the buck, when it comes to calories.

For example, foods that are high in fiber are not only good for you, but are more filling. You don't have to eat as much to feel full. Some foods provide what are called “empty” calories.

Alcohol falls into that category, packing seven calories per gram. Giving up alcohol for a while can definitely make it easier to shed pounds and lower your caloric intake.

There's growing research that suggests reducing your calories can improve your overall health. A 2006 study at the Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine found that reducing calories was good for your heart. The researchers, however, found increasing calories from vegetables promoted the best health, since vegetables contain a high percentage of nutrients per calorie. 

A 2012 study linked consuming too many calories with memory loss. And of course, consuming too many calories will make you obese, leading to all types of health problems, including heart disease and diabetes.

How many are too many? It will depend on your age, sex and body make-up. Here's a calculator that can help you determine the number that's right for you. 

What to do

To keep track of your daily calories you need to keep a food journal. With the memo functions on most smartphones now, it's easier than it once was.

Eat smaller portions. Americans have increased their portion sizes over the years because calories have become cheap. Eating less food will translate into consuming fewer calories.

Where possible, try pre-packaged meals. These will help get you accustomed to smaller portions and enable you to easily track the number of calories you are consuming.

More people are losing weight the old fashioned way. They're simply being more aware and keeping track of what they eat. In the end, it's calories that mak...

Feds seize Florida company's diet products

Some of the drugs may increase the risk of heart attack and stroke

Acting on behalf of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. marshals have seized tainted dietary supplements from Globe All Wellness (Globe All) in Hollywood, FL. The products contain an undisclosed active pharmaceutical ingredient and may be unsafe.

Several of the seized products contain sibutramine hydrochloride (sibutramine), the active ingredient in the obesity drug Meridia. Meridia was withdrawn from the U.S. market in December 2010 after clinical data demonstrated that it increased the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Unapproved drugs

Globe All markets its products with claims that its products can lower blood pressure and cholesterol, among others. Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), products offered for such use are considered to be drugs, since they are intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease.

The company’s products are drugs that have not been approved by the FDA for their claimed uses.

“Companies that distribute products containing undisclosed drugs are not only breaking the law, they are putting consumers at risk,” said Howard Sklamberg, director of the Office of Compliance in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “With these kinds of hidden dangers, consumers cannot make informed decisions about the products they are taking.”

Failed inspection

During inspections of Globe All conducted in October 2012 and February 2013, the FDA also found that the company distributed dietary supplements that were not manufactured in accordance with the current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) requirements for dietary supplements.

“Two important protections for the public are that a firm may not sell new drugs unless they have been tested and approved by the FDA and a firm may not make false or unsubstantiated claims about drugs they sell,” said Melinda K. Plaisier, acting associate commissioner for regulatory affairs. “When a firm disregards these protections, it not only violates the law but also creates a risk for consumers who may rely on a bogus product and forego effective and proven treatment. The FDA must and will take aggressive enforcement action.”

The FDA seized various lots of the following products:

  • SlimXtreme
  • SlimXtreme Gold
  • SlimPlus
  • SlimLee
  • GelSlim
  • SlimDrops
  • Colonew

No illnesses have been associated to date with Globe All’s products.

Acting on behalf of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. marshals have seized tainted dietary supplements from Globe All Wellness (Globe All) in Hol...

Dieting is a game of inches – and patience

Be happy with small steps, you aren't going to reach your goals overnight

How's that diet going? It's easy to get discouraged if you don't reach your goals when you think you should. So maybe it's time to readjust your goals.

“If we set lofty weight loss goals, like 10, 20 or 30-plus pounds, and we don’t make progress quickly enough, it’s too easy to get distracted and have our emotions convince us that the goal is not achievable,” said Lauren Whitt, director of University of Alabama Birmingham's (UAB) Employee Wellness.

Whitt and other fitness expects believe that breaking down goals into smaller, more manageable short-term targets, like losing one to two pounds per week, can lead to better chances of success.

“Once those first one or two pounds are lost, you can celebrate,” Whitt added. “Then the next mini-goal can become the focus.”

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has also found benefit from gradual weight loss. It's especially helpful, the agency says, when it comes to maintaining your new weight.

The challenge

Here's what dieters are up against. To lose one pound you need to burn or reduce 3,500 calories. For most people, walking briskly for one hour will burn about 300 calories, less than 10 percent of that. CDC recommends reducing caloric intake by 500 to 1,000 calories per day.

Going on a crash diet – reducing consumption far below that amount – can yield near-instant results. But it often results in what is known as “yo-yo dieting.” Your weight goes down and comes right back up.

Don't mess with your metabolism

By restricting so many daily calories, you are resetting your body's metabolism. Once you start eating normally again, your body burns calories more slowly. Not a good thing.

There's an abundance of commercial weight loss programs available to consumers. Some appear to be more effective than others. Before selecting one, however, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggests you discuss it with your doctor.

Based on your doctor's advice, the agency suggests choosing a diet that emphasizes healthy eating that reduces calories but does not forbid specific foods or food groups. Supplement that healthy eating plan with daily exercise of some kind. And again, start small, especially if you have not been very active lately.

What would such a plan yield in the way of results? According to NIH, between a half pound and two pounds per week.

How realistic are your goals?

Another important factor is having a realistic assessment of your current weight and measure your goals against that. You're here, but you want to be here – how realistic, or healthy, is that?

To start, you'll need to know your body mass index (BMI), a number calculated on your weight and height and a measure of how much fat your body is carrying. CDC has a handy online calculator to help you quickly establish your BMI. It will also give you a target weight to shoot for.

If you can't lose, stop gaining

It may be that before you can start losing weight, you need to stop gaining. Whitt says that can be a realistic and helpful goal if you are finding yourself struggling to lose weight.

“Look at the number you are now, and tell yourself you will stay right there,” Whitt said.

Whitt said a team of people supporting you, whether in a contest or in an individual weight-loss plan, is crucial.

“They are the ones who can pick you up and encourage you on a day when it feels overwhelming,” Whitt said. “These same people will also challenge you to continue to push forward, helping to propel you to greatness and encourage your efforts.”

It's also important not to focus on failure. Remember, there are going to be setbacks along the way. When you get right down to it, getting to and maintaining a healthy weight is not a destination but a journey. It's something you should try to do for the rest of your life.

How's that diet going? It's easy to get discouraged if you don't reach your goals when you think you should. So maybe it's time to readjust your goals.&l...

To lose weight, put down the drink and pick up the phone

Reducing alcohol use and tapping into social networks can be a cheap way to lose weight

Who couldn't stand to lose a few pounds? Consumers spend billions on diets, diet food, exercise equipment and gym memberships.

Maybe there is a less expensive way to lose weight and, in the process, become a little more healthy. We're going to pass along two such ideas.

First, if you consume alcohol, consume less of it. Over the years Americans have worked up what seems to be a mighty thirst. After the end of Prohibition in the 1930s per capita consumption of alcohol in the U.S. gradually rose, until it peaked in around 1985.

Empty calories

Drinking a lot of alcohol has health consequences but many drinkers don't stop and consider what it does to your waistline. The National Center for Health Statistics reported late last year that on average, American adults drink in 100 calories daily from beer, wine and other alcoholic beverages.

Men ages 20 to 39 consume the most alcohol, about 175 calories per day, while women in the same age group consume about 60 calories daily. The study also pointed out that almost 20 percent of men and six percent of women consume more than 300 calories daily from alcohol.

That's like eating a candy bar every day, something most people would not do if they were trying to drop a few pounds.

“It is certainly not a good health strategy to have alcohol calories constituting a significant percentage of total calorie consumption,” said Dian Griesel, co-author of the book TurboCharged: Accelerate Your Fatburning Metabolism.

The authors say women, especially, would be better off giving up alcohol until their weight goals are met.

Social networks

Another way consumers often seek to lose weight is though support groups. Weight Watchers, in fact, has been an effective program for many since it requires members to attend meetings for support and accountability.

But mobile technology now gives dieters access to some of the same kinds of support through Twitter feeds and other social networks.

A study at the University of South Carolina (USC) found that Twitter use among participants in a weight loss program increased the odds of their success at shedding pounds.

"The results show that those who regularly utilized Twitter as part of a mobile weight loss program lost more weight,” said Brie Turner-McGrievy, a USC researcher.

The study followed 96 overweight and obese men and women living in a metropolitan area over a six-month period. All participants had a smartphone or other mobile device that connected to the Internet.

The participants received regular podcasts on which they received health and nutrition information as well as feedback and encouragement. The study found the podcasts were effective in producing a 2.7 percent decrease in body weight at six months.

Twitter particularly effective

The researchers said they found the Twitter posts particularly effective. Many of the posts were from participants, offering encouragement or a personal success story.

"I avoided eating a pastry this morning at a breakfast meeting! I did have a skim Mocha without whipped cream...not too bad,” one post read.

It was these personal posts by study participants, Turner-McGrievy said, that seemed to be the most helpful.

“Traditional behavioral weight loss interventions generally provide social support through weekly, face-to-face group meetings,” she said. “While we know this is effective, it is costly and can create a high degree of burden on participants.”

But providing group support through online social networks can be a low cost way to reach a large number of people who are interested in achieving a healthy weight.

Who couldn't stand to lose a few pounds? Consumers spend billions on diets, diet food, exercise equipment and gym memberships.Maybe there is a less expen...

A fitness club not just anyone can join

Health club only accepts consumers who are at least 50 pounds overweight

Downsize Fitness is an exclusive fitness center. People with six-pack abs need not apply. This club only takes members who are at least 50 pounds overweight.

The club currently has locations in Chicago, Las Vegas and Dallas but has plans to take the concept nationwide. It was developed specifically with chronically overweight and obese individuals in mind. The idea is to provide an environment where overweight consumers don't feel self-conscious, because they are no different from any of the other members.

Owner Francis Wisniewski says the center is modeled after hit TV show,"The Biggest Loser," but he says it's structured to be more realistic -- both from a financial and time perspective. Unlike a traditional health club, every Downsize Fitness member works with a trainer every time he comes to the gym. The trainers put members through their workouts and hold them accountable for their diet.

"Our goal is to help members change their lifestyle," Wisniewski said. "It's not just about following a diet or working out; it's about teaching members new habits they will embrace in and outside of the gym. Our goal is to give our members a new quality of life and we have the resources and unique trainer support to do that for everyone who walks through our door."

Personal experience

The motivation for the gym comes from Wisniewski who himself lost over 60 pounds in the last year. Wisniewski says he had success but always felt uncomfortable working out in the gym, where everyone else seemed to be in much better shape than he was.

He made the decision to open a gym for overweight individuals when he realized he was not alone in being uncomfortable at typical gyms. Through a supportive team-oriented environment and trainer-based workout plans, the aim is to get overweight individuals healthy and fit.

Some members who have posted comments online have pointed out the fitness equipment, such as treadmills, are built for heavy people and, unlike most health clubs, the walls are not covered with mirrors.


Downsize Fitness is not the first health club to set some exclusivity parameters for membership. Curves is a national franchise of health clubs whose membership is open only to women. It opened in 1992 with the premise that some women were intimidated by working out in a health club with men. The company says it now has locations in 85 countries.

Whether Downsize Fitness matches that success is yet to be seen. However, the company could be punished for its success.

Once its members are no longer 50 pounds overweight, they will no longer meet the membership requirements. But with America's obesity epidemic, that would be a problem Downsize Fitness might like to have.

Downsize Fitness is an exclusive fitness center. People with six-pack abs need not apply. This club only takes members who are at least 50 pounds overweigh...

Four reasons you aren't losing weight

In some ways, it's a math problem

With the best of intentions you have begun a new year with the goal of losing weight. So how's that going?

Yes, it's early in the process and you should understand that shedding pounds might not be as easy as you think it will be.

“Losing weight is one of the top resolutions made every year, yet only 20 percent of people achieve successful weight-loss and maintenance,” said Jessica Bartfield, MD, who specializes in nutrition and weight management at the Loyola Center for Metabolic Surgery & Bariatric Care in Chicago.

Despite that fact that two-thirds of Americans say they are on a diet to improve their health, very few are actually seeing results. Bartfield says it's because dieting is a skill. It takes practice to get there.

Knowing why people fail to lose weight might help you avoid some of the common mistakes. Bartfield says there are four main reasons dieters don't lose weight.

1. Underestimating calories consumed

This is a biggie. Most people underestimate the number of calories they eat per day. That's why you have to read food labels and look up the caloric value of foods. Writing down everything that you eat -- including drinks and "bites" or "tastes" of food -- can help increase self-awareness.

Pay attention to serving sizes and use measuring cups and spoons as serving utensils to keep portions reasonable. Food eaten outside of the home tends to be much larger portion sizes and much higher in calories. Frequent restaurants that post the calorie content of their food.

2. Overestimating Activity and Calories Burned

If you underestimate how many calories you consume you might also overestimate how many calories you burn in a typical day. The older you get the fewer calories you burn.

“Typically you need to cut 500 calories per day to lose one pound per week," Bartfield said.

This is very hard to do through exercise alone. It would require most people to add 60 minutes or more of vigorous activity every day. Exercise is important to good health but it's much easier to reduce the calories you consume than burn them off once you've consumed them. And when you do exercise be careful -- exercise is not an excuse to eat more!

3. Poor Timing of Meals

Bartfield says people need a steady stream of glucose throughout the day to maintain optimal energy and to prevent metabolism from slowing down. Eat breakfast every day within one hour of waking up, then eat a healthy snack or meal every three to four hours. Fasting is actually counter-productive. Try not to go longer than five hours without eating a healthy snack or meal to keep your metabolism steady.

4. Inadequate Sleep

Studies have shown that people who get fewer than six hours of sleep have higher levels of ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite, particularly for high-carbohydrate/high-calorie foods. In addition, less sleep raises levels of cortisol, a stress hormone, which can lead to weight gain.

“Good health practices are more than just learned, they become a regular habit and a way of life,” Bartfield said.

A good first step is to determine how many calories you need each day. The American Cancer Society maintains an online calorie calculator to help you arrive at your number.

You should also discuss it with your doctor to find the approximate number of calories you burn. From there, you and your doctors can devise a target for calorie consumption that is right for you.

With the best of intentions you have begun a new year with the goal of losing weight. So how's that going?Yes, it's early in the process you should under...

Losing weight is a lifestyle choice

Experts say it's part of a permanent commitment to change

If you ask people for a New Year's resolution, chances are a lot of people will tell you they resolve to lose weight in the coming year. Chances are also good they will fail.

Despite the numerous diet programs and products available to consumers, losing weight and maintaining that new weight is not easy to do. Where most people run into trouble, says Shaynee Roper, clinical nutrition manager for the Harris Health System, is how they view the challenge.

Losing weight is not a change in diet, she says, but a change in lifestyle.

“A lot of people set goals and are really gung-ho in January and February, but then their energy fades because they’re not making a lifestyle change,” said Roper. “Most want a quick fix, but if you have more than 8-10 pounds to lose, it isn’t going to be a quick fix. You have to stay on task and stick with it for 6-12 months to see results.”

Small goals

How do you make losing weight part of your lifestyle? It starts with setting small goals. You might set a weekly goal of losing a pound or even five pounds over a month. Or better yet, don’t establish weight goals. Just try to reduce or eliminate bad foods like fried food or sweets.

Keeping track of what you eat and drink is also important. In the beginning it helps to write it down. If you know how many calories -- or approximately how many calories a food item has -- write that down too. Knowing how many calories you're taking in and how many you are burning is a good way to stay on track.

If you notice that there are certain foods you tend to over-consume, try to cut back. Eliminate them altogether if they aren't healthy. Replace them with fruits and vegetables.

Food is not a reward

Roper says it's fine to reward yourself for hitting certain goals, just don't reward yourself with food. Buy yourself something special or treat yourself to an event like a concert or movie.

The important thing to remember is the change can be gradual.

“When eliminating or reducing certain foods from your diet, pick one or two to start," Roper said. "Work on these for two weeks before adding more.”

Exercise is also part of a lifestyle change and 30 minutes a day will provide results. But again, don't feel like you have to do it all at once. Roper suggests breaking up the 30 minutes of recommended activity into small 5-10 minute segments throughout the day. The idea is to get your metabolism revved up and into gear.

Mayo Clinic advice

While hundreds of fad diets, weight-loss programs and outright scams promise quick and easy weight loss, the Mayo Clinic also stresses a healthy lifestyle as the foundation for a successful weight-loss program. And these changes must be permanent.

"It takes a lot of mental and physical energy to change your habits," the clinic staff says in a website posting. "So as you're planning new weight-loss-related lifestyle changes, make a plan to address other stresses in your life first, such as financial problems or relationship conflicts. While these stresses may never go away completely, managing them better should improve your ability to focus on achieving a healthier lifestyle."

If you ask people for a New Year's resolution, chances are a lot of people will tell you they resolve to lose weight in the coming year. Chances are also g...

Researcher: To control weight, get out of your car

Small transportation change can reduce body weight

For those who are watching their weight, the next few days will be critical. The end of the year holidays, from Christmas to New Years, bring dinners, parties and lots of sweets. One way to protect yourself is to resist reaching for that cookie -- and your car keys.

When you are adding extra calories to your body, it just makes sense that you need to do more to burn them. Unless you are going to make extra trips to the gym or spend more time on the treadmill, you might consider driving less and walking more.

Sheldon Jacobson is a University orf Illinois computer science professor who has studied the link between automobiles and body weight. He suggests that both daily automobile travel and calories consumed are related and reducing either one, even by a small amount, correlates with a reduction in body mass index (BMI).

Small changes

“We’re saying that making small changes in travel or diet choices may lead to comparable obesity reduction, which implies that travel-based interventions may be as effective as dietary interventions,” said graduate student Banafsheh Behzad, a co-author of the study, published in the journal Preventive Medicine.

The goal isn't just to walk more. Walking is good, make no mistake. But the object, according to the researchers, is to just spend less time in the car.

“Any time a person sits behind the wheel of a car, it’s one of the most docile activities they can do in a day,” Jacobson said. “The automobile is the quickest mode of transportation we have. But a consequence of this need for speed in getting things done may be the obesity epidemic.”

According to Jacobson, obesity is really just a math problem. Maintaining body weight essentially is a result of energy consumed and energy expended.

Other studies tend to look at the two issues individually, or at a local or individual level, but Jacobson’s group wanted to look at both sides of the equation through a national lens. They decided to use driving as a proxy for physical activity.

They created a model that took into account national average BMI, caloric intake and driving habits. They discovered that if all adults in the United States drove one mile less per day, the model predicted an associated decrease in the national average BMI -- though very slight -- after six years.

Moving more

“One mile is really not much,” Behzad said. “If they would just consider even taking the bus, walking the distance to the bus stop could have an impact like eating 100 calories less per day. The main thing is paying attention to caloric intake and moving more, together, can help reduce BMI.”

That's fine, of course, for people who live in urban areas and have access to public transportation. But people in rural areas sometimes don't have that kind of access. It might help explain why, year after year, the highest obesity rates in the nation are usually found in rural states like Mississippi and West Virginia.

The 2012 state-by-state obesity ranking by the Trust for America's Health(TFAH) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) found that 12 states had obesity rates of 30 percent or more -- the same number as last year. Twenty-six of the 30 states with the highest obesity rates are in the Midwest and South.

But for people not in rural areas, who are able to use mass transit, or better yet, walk to the post office or drug store, Jacobson insists it can be a practical way to help control weight.

“The most important thing for people to learn from this study is that they have a choice,” Jacobson said. “One has to be just as careful about when you choose to drive as when you choose to eat. These small changes in our driving and dietary habits can lead to long-term significant changes in obesity issues. Those are the kind of changes we advocate.”

And Jacobson says even a modest decrease in BMI, like that predicted by the model, could represent significant cost savings. If drivers nationwide traveled one mile less by car each day, not only would fuel consumption fall, but annual health care costs could drop by billions of dollars as fewer people would be classified as obese or overweight.

For those who are watching their weight, the next few days will be critical. The end of the year holidays, from Christmas to New Years, bring dinners, part...

Can your iPhone help you lose weight?

Study finds digital devices, telephone coaching can enhance weight loss

Some things aren't much fun to do alone. Losing weight must be one of them, as a new study finds that short-term weight-loss programs are more effective with the addition of a personal digital device and telephone coaching.

“Little is known about whether the outcome of physician-directed weight loss treatment can be improved by adding mobile technology,” the authors write in the study posted Online First by Archives of Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication. However, “self-monitoring of diet and physical activity is associated with weight loss success and can be performed conveniently using handheld devices.”

Bonnie Spring, Ph.D., with Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, and colleagues conducted a two-group 12-month study involving 69 adults from October 2007 through September 2010.

Patients were randomly assigned to a standard care only treatment group (standard group) or to a standard treatment with mobile technology system (+mobile group). All patients attended biweekly weight loss groups held by Veterans Affairs outpatient clinics, and the +mobile group also received a personal digital assistant (PDA) to self-monitor diet and physical activity, and biweekly coaching calls for six months. Weight was measured at randomization, and at 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month follow-up.

Patients assigned to the +mobile group lost an average of 3.9 kg (8.6 pounds) more than the control group at each weigh-in, and the authors found no evidence that this varied across time. Specifically, weight loss among the +mobile group was greater than weight loss in the control group at three and six months, nine months and 12 months.

Big loss

More than 36 percent of participants in the +mobile group lost at least 5 percent of their initial body weight at three months, compared with 0 percent in the standard group, and this effect also did not vary significantly across time.

“In sum, this study highlights the promise of a mobile technology system as a scalable, cost-effective means to augment the effectiveness of physician-directed weight loss treatment,” the authors conclude.

“Technology offers new channels to reconfigure the provision of effective components of behavioral weight loss treatment (i.e., self-monitoring, goal setting, lifestyle counseling and in-person sessions).”

Some things aren't much fun to do alone. Losing weight must be one of them, as a new study finds that short-term weight-loss programs are more effective wi...

Marijuana associated with overeating, study finds

Attacks of the munchies are not a minor matter, researchers report

Colorado and Washington recently became the first states to legalize marijuana for recreational use, not just for medicinal purposes, and the weed appears to be on the road to legalization elsewhere. 

But a new study finds that it may bring an unexpected problem with it -- binge eating. The study published Online First by Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, a JAMA Network publication finds that overeating and binge eating in adolescents and young adults may be associated with the use of marijuana and other drugs.

Kendrin R. Sonneville, Sc.D., R.D., of Boston Children’s Hospital, and colleagues examined the association between overeating and binge eating  and adverse outcomes such as overweight/obesity, depressive symptoms, frequent binge drinking, marijuana use and other drug use.

The study included 16,882 boys and girls who were 9 to 15 years old in 1996 and participated in the Growing Up Today Study. Overeating and binge eating were assessed by questionnaires every 12 to 24 months between 1996 and 2005.

More common among women

Binge eating was more common among females than males, with 2.3 percent to 3.1 percent of females and 0.3 percent to 1 percent of males reporting binge eating between the ages of 16 and 24, according to the study results.

“In summary, we found that binge eating, but not overeating, predicted the onset of overweight/obesity and worsening depressive symptoms. We further observed that any overeating ... predicted the onset of marijuana and other drug use,” the authors comment.

Binge eating is defined as eating an amount of food that is larger than most people would eat in a similar period under similar circumstances and feeling a lack of control over eating during the episode, according to the study background.

“Given that binge eating is uniquely predictive of some adverse outcomes and because previous work has found that binge eating is amenable to intervention, clinicians should be encouraged to screen adolescents for binge eating,” the authors said.

Colorado and Washington recently became the first states to legalize marijuana for recreational use, not just for medicinal purposes, and the weed appears ...

1-800-GET-THIN LAP-BAND Weight-Loss Promoters Under Scrutiny

Lawsuits and investigations plague the brothers who once blanketed Southern California with ads

Two California brothers who have been leading promoters of the LAP-BAND surgical procedure for weight loss in obese adults are being targeted by several federal and state criminal investigations, the Los Angeles Times reports.

Michael and Julian Omidi, who for years ran the seemingly ubiquitous 1-800-GET-THIN ad campaign, are also facing numerous lawsuits filed by patients and the survivors of patients who had bad outcomes from the procedure.

The LAP-BAND is a ring that is placed on the upper part of the stomach forming a small pouch. It is supposed to cause patients to experience a full feeling and restrict their dietary intake.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the LAP-BAND in 2001 for use in severely obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 40, and those with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 35 and who also have an existing severe condition related to their obesity, such as heart disease or diabetes, or those who are at least 100 pounds overweight. Last year, it expanded the eligibility to those with a BMI of 30 to 34. BMI is a general measure of body fat based on an individual’s weight and height.

The investigation centers around "potential violations of federal law, including conspiracy, healthcare fraud, wire fraud, mail fraud, tax violations, identity theft [and] money laundering," Samanta Kelley, a special agent for the Food and Drug Administration's criminal division, said in an affidavit filed at the federal courthouse in Los Angeles, the Times reported.

Ads everywhere

The 1-800-GET-THIN advertisements blanketed Southern California roadside billboards, television, radio and the Internet for years but disappeared earlier this year after the FDA warned the company that the ads were misleading because they failed to include adequate warnings about the surgery

One worker at a clinic affiliated with 1-800-GET-THIN was recently arrested after she tried to sell the medical records of two patients who died after Lap-Band surgeries to an attorney, Kelley said in an affidavit.

An attorney representing the Omidis, John Hueston, said his clients have done nothing wrong and he did not expect criminal charges to be filed against them.

5 deaths

Five patients died after undergoing the Lap-Band procedures at clinics linked to the 1-800-GET-THIN campaigns. In their lawsuits, relatives of the dead patients have charged that the clinics failed to warn patients about the risks of the surgery and alleged that doctors made numerous errors that led to the patients' deaths.

One of the lawsuits seeks damages in the death of a 50-year-old California woman who died in July 2010, five days after Lap Band surgery. Laura Faitro of Simi Valley died after undergoing surgery at Valley Surgical Center in West Hills, Calif. 

Her husband, John, said Ms. Faitro became interested in the surgery after seeing television commercials for 1-800-GET-THIN. But a few days after the surgery, she was hospitalized with an infection and later died.

Faitro's suit charges that there were three lacerations on her liver and her abdominal cavity was filled with bloody fluid, KABC-TV reported. 

Faitro claims surgeons discharged his wife despite her complaints of severe abdominal pain, and that the pain was so intense it forced her to seek help at the Simi Valley Hospital emergency room. She died on July 26 of "multi-organ failure and infarction due to shock, secondary to bleeding and sepsis in the abdominal cavity," according to the complaint.

Last resort

The LAP-BAND is intended to be used for weight loss in adults who have not lost weight using non-surgical weight loss methods. 

Patients using the LAP-BAND must be willing to make major changes to their lifestyle and eating habits, the FDA notes.

Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States,” said William Maisel, M.D., M.P.H., deputy director for science at the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “A healthy lifestyle and weight loss are keys to improvements in health and a person’s overall quality of life.”

Use of the LAP-BAND in patients with BMIs between 30 and 40 was examined in a U.S. study. Results showed that 80 percent of patients lost at least 30 percent of their excess weight and kept it off for one year. Some patients in the study lost no weight, while others lost more than 80 percent of their extra weight.

In the same study, more than 70 percent of patients experienced an adverse event related to LAP-BAND, most often vomiting and difficulty swallowing. The events ranged from mild to severe but most were mild and resolved quickly.

Seven out of 149 patients needed other procedures after implantation: four to remove the LAP-BAND, two for port revisions, and one to reposition the LAP-BAND.

More about weight loss

Two California brothers who have been leading promoters of the Lap-Band  surgical procedure for weight loss in obese adults are being targeted by...

Building an Exercise Routine on a Time Budget

Researchers say mixing some intense exercise in a moderate workout steps up calorie burn

The U.S. government recommends the average adult get 150 minutes of moderate exercise each week or 75 minutes of a more strenuous workout. Most of us don't, however, using the lack of time as an excuse.

Researchers at the University of Colorado say it might not take nearly as long to achieve results if we would use an exercise technique known as sprint interval training. They have found that exercisers can burn as many as 200 extra calories in as little as 2.5 minutes of concentrated effort a day —- as long as they intersperse longer periods of easy recovery in a practice known as sprint interval training.

Manageable exercise

The finding could make exercise more manageable for would-be fitness buffs by cramming truly intense efforts into as little as 25 minutes.

Using a stationary bike as an example, the researchers suggest peddling at a moderate pace for 10 minutes or so before kicking into high gear and peddling at a fast pace for two or three minutes, then repeating the pattern. Their results showed a marked uptick in the amount of calories the volunteers burned on the workout day, despite the short amount of time spent in actual hard exercise.

“Research shows that many people start an exercise program but just can’t keep it up,” said Kyle Sevits, leader of the research team. “The biggest factor people quote is that they don’t have the time to fit in exercise. We hope if exercise can be fit into a smaller period of time, then they may give exercise a go and stick with it.”

Testing the theory

In a test, volunteers engaged in extended periods of moderate activity. One one day, they engaged in sprint interval training.

An analysis of a system that measured the subjects' calorie expenditure showed that the volunteers burned an average of an extra 200 calories on the sprint interval workout day, despite spending just 2.5 minutes engaged in hard exercise.

Though the researchers can’t yet speculate on whether such efforts could translate into weight loss, Sevits and his colleagues suggest that engaging in intense, but brief, bursts of exercise could aid in weight maintenance.

“Burning an extra 200 calories from these exercises a couple of times a week can help keep away that pound or two that many Americans gain each year,” Sevits said.

A word of caution: depending on age and medical factors, not everyone should engage in intense exercise. No change in exercise routine should be undertaken without first discussing it with your doctor.

The U.S. government recommends the average adult get 150 minutes of moderate exercise each week or 75 minutes of a more strenuous workout. Most of us don't...

Right Size Smoothies: Does It Work or Is Right Size All Wrong?

With a lot of complaints and questionable charges, the company is off to a rough start

Companies that make products like Slim-Fast have always taken a strange approach to dieting. It seems they heavily promote taking the easy way out when it comes to losing weight.

These companies try to convince you that you don’t have to eat right or exercise to achieve your desired weight loss results. And by popping a shake, swallowing a pill, or eating some God-forsaken diet bar, you’ll be skinny as a fishing pole without any of the gruesome effort.

In short, these companies are saying “Hey, I know you like cakes and sweets -- we understand, you don’t have to restructure your level of discipline, just swallow these liquidy deserts and don’t deal with your mental fixation on eating unhealthy foods."

I always envision companies saying these evil things to consumers in a creepy kind of whisper for some reason.

Now, one of the latest products to hit the market is Right Size Smoothies, which calls itself the “hunger-smashing smoothie.” Like similar products it’s supposed to suppress your appetite for a couple of hours, and sustain you until you can eat a healthy meal. Flavors include “Lean Cocoa Bean,” “SkinniVanilli” and “Slenda-A-Berry.”

Powder and liquid

Right Size Smoothies comes in powder form and I’ve also seen some in ready-made bottles on the infomercial. The diet drink is also sold on the company’s website and in retail stores like CVS, Walgreens, Shop ‘N Save, and Farm Fresh.

A container of drink mix, which makes 30 servings, starts at around $55 on the site, and makers say the smoothies are made of Appemine which can suppress hunger. But instead, the infomercial uses the term “hunger manager,” which makes it seem like the user has a little more self- control over their food choices, and it’s not just the shake doing all the work.

And like most companies trying to get a new product off the ground, Right Size attempts to draw you in by offering some sort of no-money-down commitment-free service, which usually does absolutely nothing for the consumer in terms of feeling more confident about a product.

On its website, Right Size says it will send you two containers of smoothie mix for a couple of weeks free of charge, and you pick the flavors. Then if you are unhappy with the smoothie, the company says you should return the second container unused, along with the shipping cost of $18.80.

Sounds easy enough, right? I mean, what can go wrong when you’re trying to get something for nothing?

Consumers rate Right Size Smoothies

Well, a lot can go wrong, according to the postings on ConsumerAffairs. Take John of San Francisco, for example. He found out that giving Right Size Smoothies a two week try didn’t go so smoothly at all.

“I thought I ordered a two-week trial, two canisters arrived in a box, so I tried both flavors,” he wrote. Then, I turned to the back side of the invoice receipt ($18.77 at arrival) and noticed that they have a lengthy liability threat and a statement of charging $119.80 additionally for a 30-day supply. I called to cancel any subscription and could not get an answer, the operator didn’t pick up.”

“I called 4 more times," he added. "I finally, out of the blue, got a call from some rude person who told me that I should have read the disclaimer on the website saying that they actually send 30 days and if you open both containers, you are bound to pay them. I said ‘it says on the front of the invoice that it’s a two-week trial, and I just called to cancel a recurrence.’ She replied ‘You should have read the disclaimer, we send a month’s worth and we will charge you full price if you opened the second canister.”

Since John’s complaint he challenged the charge with his credit card company which is always the first thing one should do when getting a charge they don’t agree with.

After going to the company’s website, it does mention something about not opening the second container, if you want a refund--in the frequently asked questions section--but the company makes no effort to make these terms evident, and whether that's intentional could easily be debated.

Consistent complaint

But the questionable charge of $119.80 seems to be a consistent complaint among our readers, as Samaiyah from Milledgeville Ga. was told she had to pay this amount after first placing her order.

“After I entered my credit card information in the automatic system, it said that I was going to be charged $119.80,” she wrote. I tried to cancel but my card was charged the $18 anyway. I called consumer service and she told me to send it back on the 10th and it will be cancelled. So today I called consumer service and the rep was trying to convince me to keep the product. This company is a scam," she wrote.

What’s also interesting is that out of the 19 complaints posted in our review section, seven people in total have been charged $119.80 upon ordering or trying to cancel Right Size Smoothies. It seems just like most trial experiences, giving this product a free shot seems to be more trouble than it's worth.

ConsumerAffairs phoned Right Size Smoothies to get a better understanding of why people are being charged this exorbitant price when there is supposed to be absolutely no charge for the trial.

Also, if one opens the second canister of drink powder that’s one thing, but the fact that folks are being charged almost $120 off-the-cuff indicates at the very least that Right Size is communicating very poorly to its customers about all of the stipulations that go along with the free  trial.

We eventually reached a company representative by the name of Brandon in the complaints department, and asked him about the $119.80 charge a lot of people are getting, and he told us that all terms and conditions are on the website, and he couldn’t provide us any further information since we didn’t have a personal account with the company.

Brandon also seemed extremely reluctant to answer the question about the hefty charge, although he did indicate that he was familiar with the specific complaint. Although we didn’t get an exact response from the company about the many complaints it receives, the fact it didn’t want to at least provide a statement is a bit telling.

Does it work?

And as far as the actual product, how does it work? Has it made people lose weight?

It’s safe to assume that many users of Right Size Smoothies will lose some sort of weight, because along with the shakes, the company tells you to eat less and have healthy balanced snacks, as if Right Size Smoothie invented this particular method of dieting.

The good news is whether you consume Right Size Smoothies or not, you’re bound to shed pounds if you do the other things the company suggests. Also, Right Size hasn’t done a great job in explaining how its product is different from similar weight loss beverages.

All and all there is no quick fix to weight loss, and replacing your desire for chocolate cake with a desire to consume chocolate smoothies probably isn’t the right mental approach when trying to lose weight.

And lastly, if there was a brand new revolutionary weight loss product that was far superior from exercising and eating right, consumers would see these miraculous new findings plastered by every media outlet in the world. They wouldn’t see these world-changing-diet-results late at night, on some obscure cable channel, that's for sure.

Companies that make products like Slim-Fast have always taken a strange approach to dieting. It seems they heavily promote taking the easy way out when it...

Medifast Subsidiary Agrees to $3.7 Million Penalty

Company allegedly violated an earlier order that it stop making unsupported claims

A subsidiary of diet plan marketer Medifast Inc. will pay a $3.7 million civil penalty to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that it violated a previous agency order by making unsupported claims about its weight-loss program.

Medifast unit Jason Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has agreed to settle FTC charges that weight-loss claims in the company’s advertisements for meal replacement products violated a 1992 FTC settlement order, which barred it from making any unsupported claims about users’ success in achieving or maintaining weight loss or weight control.

Jason Pharmaceuticals sells Medifast-brand low-calorie meal substitutes.  Its most advertised plan is the Medifast “5 and 1” plan that consists of 800-1,000 calories per day.  Filed on the FTC’s behalf by the Department of Justice, the complaint against Jason Pharmaceuticals alleges that the company made unsupported representations since at least November 2009 in radio, television, Internet, and print advertisements that consumers using Medifast programs and products would lose two to five pounds each week. 

The company also represented that the experiences of consumer endorsers featured in the advertisements were typical, and that consumers would lose more than 30 pounds, according to the complaint.

One such ad stated:
“Why Medifast?  Three great reasons.
Cynthia Lujan lost 73 lbs on Medifast! Cindy Daniels lost 43 lbs on Medifast!
Jennifer Lilley lost 70 lbs on Medifast!
You can lose up to 2 to 5 pounds per week on Medifast.”

Under the new settlement order announced today, Jason Pharmaceuticals is prohibited from misrepresenting that consumers who use any low-calorie meal replacement program, including the Medifast “5 and 1” plan, can expect to achieve the same results that an endorser does, or can lose a particular amount of weight or maintain the weight loss. 

Such representations must be non-misleading and backed by competent and reliable scientific evidence that consists of at least one adequate and well-controlled human clinical study of the low-calorie meal replacement program, or a study that follows a protocol detailed in the settlement order.

Under the settlement order, the company also is prohibited from making any other representation about the health benefits, safety, or side effects of any low-calorie meal replacement program, unless the representation is non-misleading and backed by competent and reliable scientific evidence that is generally accepted in the profession to yield accurate results.

The company also is prohibited from misrepresenting that any doctor, health professional, or endorser recommends a weight-loss product, program, service, drug, or dietary supplement.

A subsidiary of diet plan marketer Medifast Inc. will pay a $3.7 million civil penalty to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that it violated a p...

Older Overweight Children Consume Fewer Calories Than Their Healthy Weight Peers

Study finds there is no such thing as a 'one size fits all' explanation for childhood obesity

A new study by University of North Carolina School of Medicine pediatrics researchers finds a surprising difference in the eating habits of overweight children between ages 9 and 17 years compared to those younger than nine. 

Younger kids who are overweight or obese consume more calories per day than their healthy weight peers. But among older overweight children the pattern is reversed: They actually consume fewer calories per day than their healthy weight peers. 

Is that possible? 

How to explain such a seemingly counterintuitive finding? 

"Children who are overweight tend to remain overweight," said Asheley Cockrell Skinner, PhD, assistant professor of pediatrics at UNC and lead author of the study published by the journal Pediatrics

"So, for many children, obesity may begin by eating more in early childhood. Then as they get older, they continue to be obese without eating any more than their healthy weight peers," Skinner said. "One reason this makes sense is because we know overweight children are less active than healthy weight kids. Additionally, this is in line with other research that obesity is not a simple matter of overweight people eating more -- the body is complex in how it reacts to amount of food eaten and amount of activity." 

Weight strategies 

These results also suggest that different strategies may be needed to help children in both age groups reach a healthy weight. 

"It makes sense for early childhood interventions to focus specifically on caloric intake, while for those in later childhood or adolescence the focus should instead be on increasing physical activity, since overweight children tend to be less active," Skinner said. "Even though reducing calories would likely result in weight loss for children, it's not a matter of wanting them to eat more like healthy weight kids -- they would actually have to eat much less than their peers, which can be a very difficult prospect for children and, especially, adolescents." 

These findings "have significant implications for interventions aimed at preventing and treating childhood obesity," Skinner said. 

In the study, Skinner and co-authors Eliana Perrin, MD, MPH, and Michael Steiner, MD, examined dietary reports from 19,125 children ages 1-17 years old that were collected from 2001 to 2008 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). 

They categorized the weight status based on weight-for-length percentile in children less than 2 years old, or body mass index (BMI) percentile for children between 2 and 17, and performed statistical analyses to examine the interactions of age and weight category on calorie intake.

A new study by University of North Carolina School of Medicine pediatrics researchers finds a surprising difference in the eating habits of overweight chil...

Limiting TV Time is Effective Strategy for Preventing Weight Gain In Children

New study highlights how parents can help their youngsters achieve a healthier lifestyle

Turn off the tube! That's the advice of a study on ways to keep your kids from becoming obese couch potatoes. 

The study, released in the September/October 2012 issue of the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, found that reducing television viewing may be an effective strategy to prevent excess weight gain among adolescents. 

Careful tracking 

Findings were based on a one-year community-based randomized trial that enrolled 153 adults and 72 adolescents from the same households. During that year, researchers from the University of Minnesota, School of Public Health Obesity Prevention Center conducted six face-to-face group meetings, sent monthly newsletters, and set-up 12 home-based activities. 

In addition, each household agreed to allow researchers to attach a "TV Allowance" to all televisions in the household for the one-year study period. Television viewing hours, diet, and physical activity levels were measured before and after the intervention. 

A clear association was observed among adolescents between reduction in TV hours and decreased weight gain over one year. The TV hours' impact on weight gain was not significant for adults. These findings suggest that television viewing is a risk for excess weight gain among adolescents. The implication is that parents who limit their adolescents' television viewing may help their adolescent maintain a healthy body weight. 

According to national survey data [NHANES] 2003-2006, about 31% of US children and adolescents are overweight or obese, therefore finding the causes for weight gain in this population is growing increasingly important. 

Baby steps 

"We tried to intervene on behaviors that are related to energy balance, such as television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, physical activity, and consumption of packaged convenience foods,” said Simone A. French, PhD, principal investigator of the study and the director of the University of Minnesota's Obesity Prevention Center. “Although the individual contribution of each of these behaviors to excess weight gain and obesity may be small, it is important to examine their possible role individually and together in promoting excess weight gain. Associations between these behaviors and risk for excess weight gain may differ among adults and adolescents because of their different physical and social developmental stages. 

"This study is an important piece of evidence that reducing TV hours is a powerful weight gain prevention strategy parents can use to help prevent excess weight gain among their children by changing the home environment and household television viewing norms," French concluded.

Turn off the tube! That's the advice of a study on ways to keep your kids from becoming obese couch potatoes....

Lawsuit Takes Issue With Parkay Spray

The lawsuit claims the spray-on butter substitute isn't as fat-free as it claims to be

A Nebraska woman charges that Parkay Spray butter substitute isn't as calorie- and fat-free as it claims to be. Pamela Trewhitt claims in a lawsuit that seeks class action status that ConAgra Foods intentionally misrepresents Parkay Spray in its advertising. 

The spray is marketed as fat-free and caloria-free but Trewhitt's suit claims that, in fact, an 8-ounce bottle contains 832 calories and 93 grams of fat.

"Defendant knew or should have known that its product was mislabeled and engendered confusion among consumers," the lawsuit says.

The comany said it stands behind the product and its labeling.

"While we don’t comment on pending litigation, ConAgra Foods stands behind the accuracy of our labeling and has a long-established commitment to marketing our food responsibly. We intend to vigorously defend this litigation," Becky Niiya of ConAgra told ConsumerAffairs.

The lawsuit quotes consumer complaints on the Internet about the spray.

"I could not figure out why I simply could not lose hardly even a pound, even though I was working out hard ... and monitoring calories ... for a couple of years ... I was also literally taking the top of the 'fat and calorie free butter' spray and pouring it on all my carefully steamed veggies when I found out that a bottle of that stuff is 90 fat grams," said one consumer quoted in the suit.

"I was going through two bottles a week, and working out and getting fat and unhealthy," the consumer complained.

But a more balanced review notes that serving size must be factored into the equation: "Well, it all boils down to legalities. The serving size is listed as 1 spray for cooking, and 5 sprays for a topping. I've never used only 1 spray no matter what I'm using it for; 5 sprays is a lot more realistic. Even so, with a 5 spray serving, they still claim 0 calories and 0 fat," said an unnamed reviewed on ePinions.

The lawsuit claims ConAgra is violating the Nebraska Consumer Protection Act and seeks damages of $5 million. It also asks for an injunction to prohibit the allegedly inaccurate labels.

Of course, not everybody's unhappy with the product. Melissa of North Carolina, for one, was so pleased with her bottle of Parkay Spray that she posted a video on the ExpoTv site. Melissa doesn't say whether she was paid or otherwise compensated for her endorsement.

A Nebraska woman charges that Parkay Spray butter substitute isn't as calorie- and fat-free as it claims to be. Pamela Trewhitt claims in a lawsuit th...

Weight Loss Equals Economic Gain in Oklahoma City

City follows Mayor Mick Cornett's example -- slims down and amps up

Oklahoma City has seen some pretty good days in the last few years, and not just because of its successful NBA team, the Oklahoma City Thunder. Nationally, the city has been known to be pretty much recession-proof, with one of the lowest unemployment and home foreclosure rates in the country.

In addition, Oklahoma City has created a $700 million educational campaign to either renovate or build over 70 schools throughout the evolving city. The construction campaign is one of the biggest education initiatives in the country.

With Oklahoma City's steadily growing economy and its extremely rapid pace of development, other areas are looking to the city for both ideas and inspiration when it comes to avoiding the full impact of the nation's recession.

But not only is Oklahoma City considered one of the best places to live and start a business, its residents were also able to lose one million pounds collectively, after being challenged by the city's mayor. The city was also recently named one of the "seven worst places to smoke weed," which is either a big plus or a big minus, depending on your point of view.

The missing million

ConsumerAffairs spoke with the Oklahoma City Mayor Mick Cornett about how his city has thrived during recessionary times, and how its residents lost those million pounds in a relatively short period of time.

“In the winter of 06/07, there was a story in Men's Fitness Magazine that went and called the city one of the most obese cities in the country, one of the fattest cities in the country,” he said.

 “It was about the time that we were starting to show up on a lot of complimentary lists -- best places to get a job -- those types of lists, and I was doing my best traveling the country and speaking inside the city talking about Oklahoma City's kind of emerging economy and [how] we're rising up to a new position. And that obesity list really bothered me,” he said.

 “And I kind of went through some personal reflection at the time, and got on the scales one day and went to a website and found out that I was obese. I didn't even know."

"So I decided to lose some weight and I lost a pound a week for about 40- weeks. During that time frame I studied the city’s infrastructure and culture and why we have a problem, and came up with an idea of trying to create awareness about obesity, [because] we weren't talking about it, we were in denial,” he explained.

“So I came up with the idea of putting the entire city on a diet and announcing that we were going to lose a million pounds. And got a private sector donor to put a website together so we can kind of collect the information from everybody. So there was no government money spent on it.”

“And as of January we reached the million-pound mark," he said. “We had 47,000 people sign up and we reached our goal. It took four years and three weeks.”


Mayor Cornett said that during that time, the city was able to take a look at itself and reexamine how its infrastructure was leading to the high obesity rate.

After the city's self-inventory, the Mayor was able to include jogging, and biking trails, sidewalks, senior health and wellness centers, and other additions to the city that helped residents remain active.

The Mayor admitted that if it wasn't for the million pound weight loss challenge, the additions to the city may not have been included in the development.

“Once we went through the awareness campaign, we saw what we had to correct,” he said.

Although a city losing one million pounds is a huge challenge, a bigger challenge may have been for the Mayor, when he had to tell the same people who voted him into office, that they needed to lose a bit of weight.

And what was the initial reaction?

“I think most were stunned,” the Mayor said. “I think it was 'check-out what the crazy mayor did'. I think that was the first reaction. But even if that's what it was, it got people talking about it. And obesity became the sort of topic in Oklahoma City that no one was comfortable talking about.”

“I think it’s because we consider ourselves nice people and obesity can affect the way you look,” he added. “And it's not nice to talk about the way people look, it's an unflattering situation.”

“I think when I went public with my story and my personal struggles, and announced this was going to be a topic of public debate -- and we're not going to hide it anymore -- I think it freed up everybody to talk, inside their home, inside their businesses, inside their church. Many, many people jumped on board. It just took off,” he said.

Weight loss, economic growth

But has the city been able to maintain its new healthier lifestyle?

Mayor Cornett says there is a definite link between Oklahoma City's economic growth and its ability to keep improving its obesity rate.

“Our per capita income is going up because of the jobs we created, and with the per capita income on the rise, it will lower those obesity rates.” It all comes back to economic development and creating a city where they want to live,” he said.

And so far, the Mayor has been praised by Oklahoma City residents, as well as the entire nation for doing just that. Building a city that people are enthused to move to and reside in.

In fact, he says the old order of people moving to cities to follow certain jobs has changed. Nowadays people first determine where they want to live, then the jobs will follow them.

“Jobs follow people, people don't follow jobs anymore,” he says. "If you can create a city where highly educated twenty-somethings want to live, the jobs will follow. It was announced that we were the most entrepreneurial city in the country in terms of start-ups per capita.”

Mayor Cornett also says what makes Oklahoma City a great place to start a small business is the residents and their level of consumer confidence.

“People are spending money,” he said. “We have the lowest unemployment in the country. Our cost of living is low and is about 90 percent of the national average, and our wages are higher than the national average, so that creates a discretionary opportunity for people to spend money on things like, restaurants or NBA tickets or whatever they choose.”

“What it boils down to, if you're not spending all of your money on housing, and in many communities that's what it feels like, [then] you have money to do other things. And that option is one of the things that leads to the quality of life living in Oklahoma City.”

“Life is easy here,” he added. “Life can be a struggle in a lot of places, but life is not a struggle here on a daily business.”

The Mayor also says that because land is still very affordable in Oklahoma City, people are purchasing it in various areas, which will avoid any one area from becoming overpopulated.

In essence, the city has developed the best of both worlds. It's become a faster-paced city with more to see and do, but sprawled out enough so residents still have ample space.

So what's next for the country's number one developing city in the next decade or so?

“I think the next ten will be better than the last ten, with all of the projects we're building right now,” said the Mayor.

“We're building a new convention center and a new downtown street car, a new park, the new senior health and wellness centers, improvements on the river, the fairgrounds. We got a billion dollars of construction in the pipeline coming in, and almost all of it is in the inner city. You need to develop downtown.”

“We've convinced suburbanites that the quality of their life is directly related to the intensity of the core," he said. "You can't be a suburb of nothing. And that's been kind of the key to getting these tax generated infrastructure projects in line.

"We also pay cash; we don't go into debt for most of the stuff I just talked about. It takes us quite a while to build them, but I like that pay as you go philosophy."

Also,“We have another 10 years of projects to build. So you ask about the next ten years, the dirt is going to be flying from now on,” he said.

Oklahoma City has seen some wonderful days in the last recent years, and not just because of its successful NBA team the Oklahoma City Thunder.Natio...

Medications Target Long-Term Weight Control

New drugs are the first approved by the FDA in 13 years

More than one-third of U.S. adults are obese, and obesity contributes to a number of health conditions, including high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol. 

To help obese and overweight Americans who have been unsuccessful in getting their weight under control with diet and exercise, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two new medications -- the first drugs for long-term weight management that FDA has approved in 13 years. 

Life-long meds 

Marketed as Belviq and Qsymia, these prescription medications would be taken for the rest of a person’s life. “For many people, obesity is a life-long condition, but we don’t always think of it -- or treat it -- as such,” says Amy Egan, M.D., M.P.H., deputy director for safety in FDA’s Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology Products (DMEP). 

“Qsymia and Belviq are considered life-long therapies in patients who respond to and tolerate them,” says Egan. 

The drugs are meant to be used in conjunction with a balanced diet and exercise, says Mary Roberts, M.D., a medical officer in DMEP. “These drugs are another tool to be used by someone trying to reach and stay at a healthy weight,” she says. 

Are they for you? 

You may be a candidate for taking Belviq or Qsymia if you are at least 18 and: 

  • your body mass index (BMI) is 30 or greater (obese); or
  • your BMI is 27 or greater (overweight) and you have at least one other weight-related condition. 

Women who are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant should not take either of these medications, Egan says, because weight loss offers no potential benefit to a pregnant woman and can cause fetal harm. Qsymia carries a risk for birth defects (cleft lip with or without cleft palate) in infants exposed during the first trimester of pregnancy. 

How they work 

Belviq -- the trade name for the drug lorcaserin -- is a 10 mg tablet taken twice a day that works by activating a part of the brain that controls hunger. It was tested in three clinical trials that lasted from 52 to 104 weeks and included nearly 8,000 obese and overweight patients. 

The average weight loss for patients taking Belviq ranged from 3 to 3.7 percent over those taking a placebo.

In studies of patients without type 2 diabetes, about 47 percent of patients lost at least 5 percent of their weight compared with 23 percent of patients treated with placebo.

Belviq should be discontinued if a patient fails to lose five percent of their weight after 12 weeks of treatment, as it is unlikely that continued treatment will be successful. 

Qsymia is a combination of two FDA-approved drugs: phentermine, an appetite suppressant, and topiramate, used to treat epilepsy and migraines. It is taken once a day, with patients starting at the lowest dose (3.75 mg phentermine/23 mg topiramate extended-release), then increasing to the recommended dose (7.5 mg/46 mg). In some circumstances, patients may have their dose increased to the highest dose (15 mg/92 mg). 

It was tested in two clinical trials which included nearly 3,700 obese and overweight patients treated for up to one year.

The average weight loss of patients taking Qsymia ranged from 6.7 percent (lowest dose) to 8.9 percent (recommended dose) over those taking a placebo. 

Sixty-two percent of patients on the lowest dose and 70 percent on the recommended dose lost at least 5 percent of their weight compared with 20 percent treated with placebo. 

If after 12 weeks, a patient has not lost 3 percent of his or her weight on the recommended dose of Qsymia, FDA recommends that treatment be discontinued or increased to the highest dose.  If after an additional 12 weeks on the highest dose, a patient does not lose at least five percent of weight, Qsymia should be discontinued gradually. 

The history

Why has it been 13 years since the last diet drug was approved? 

Eric Colman, M.D., deputy director of DMEP, says drug companies have been testing potential new weight loss drugs, but none had proven effective and safe for consumers until now. 

Before Belviq and Qsymia, the only prescription drug currently approved for long-term treatment of obesity was orlistat, marketed as Xenical. Orlistat is also sold over the counter in a lower dose as Alli. 

But Colman explains FDA has a long history with weight-loss drugs, one set against a backdrop of changing attitudes towards obesity. It wasn’t that long ago, he says, that vanity was considered the only reason to lose weight. That mindset has shifted over the last 20 years with recognition that obesity is a serious health concern. 

FDA approved the first prescription obesity medication in 1947, an appetite suppressant called desoxyephedrine or methamphetamine. Over the next few decades, several more appetite suppressants were approved. In 1973, FDA limited all weight loss drugs to short term use, reflecting concerns about an epidemic of amphetamine use, Colman says. 

In 1997, two diet drugs were removed from the market because of concerns about damage to heart valves. They were fenfluramine (part of the popular fen-phen) and dexfenfluramine (Redux). In 2010, the drug sibutramine (Meridia) was also removed because of concerns about an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. 

The manufacturers of both Belviq and Qsymia will be required to perform long-term trials to examine the effect of these products on the risk for heart attacks and strokes.

To help obese and overweight Americans who have been unsuccessful in getting their weight under control with diet and exercise, the Food and Drug Administr...

FDA Approves Weight-Management Drug Qsymia

However, the drug is not for use by everyone

People fighting the Battle of the Bulge have a new weapon in their arsenal with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) approval of Qsymia (phentermine and topiramate extended-release) as an addition to a reduced-calorie diet and exercise for chronic weight management. 

The drug is approved for use in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater (obese) or a BMI of 27 or greater (overweight), who have at least one weight-related condition such as high blood pressure (hypertension), type 2 diabetes, or high cholesterol (dyslipidemia). 

BMI, which measures body fat based on an individual’s weight and height, is used to define the obesity and overweight categories. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than one-third of adults in the United States are obese. 

“Obesity threatens the overall well being of patients and is a major public health concern,” said Janet Woodcock, M.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Qsymia, used responsibly in combination with a healthy lifestyle that includes a reduced-calorie diet and exercise, provides another treatment option for chronic weight management in Americans who are obese or are overweight and have at least one weight-related comorbid condition.” 

Drug combo 

Qsymia is a combination of two FDA-approved drugs, phentermine and topiramate, in an extended-release formulation. 

Phentermine is indicated for short-term weight loss in overweight or obese adults who are exercising and eating a reduced calorie diet. 

Topiramate is indicated to treat certain types of seizures in people who have epilepsy and to prevent migraine headaches. 

Limited use 

Qsymia must not be used during pregnancy because it can cause harm to a fetus. Data show that a fetus exposed to topiramate, a component of Qsymia, in the first trimester of pregnancy has an increased risk of oral clefts (cleft lip with or without cleft palate). 

Females of reproductive potential must not be pregnant when starting Qsymia therapy or become pregnant while taking Qsymia. They should also have a negative pregnancy test before starting Qsymia and every month while using the drug, and should use effective contraception consistently while taking Qsymia. 

The safety and efficacy of Qsymia were evaluated in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials that included approximately 3,700 obese and overweight patients with and without significant weight-related conditions treated for one year. All patients received lifestyle modification that consisted of a reduced calorie diet and regular physical activity. 

Trial results 

Results from the two trials show that after one year of treatment with the recommended and highest daily dose of Qsymia, patients had an average weight loss of 6.7 percent and 8.9 percent, respectively, over treatment with placebo. 

Approximately 62 percent and 69 percent of patients lost at least five percent of their body weight with the recommended dose and highest dose of Qsymia, respectively, compared with about 20 percent of patients treated with placebo. 

Patients who did not lose at least three percent of their body weight by week 12 of treatment with Qsymia were unlikely to achieve and sustain weight loss with continued treatment at this dose. Therefore, response to therapy with the recommended daily dose of Qsymia should be evaluated by 12 weeks to determine, based on the amount of weight loss, whether to discontinue Qsymia or increase to the higher dose.  

If after 12 weeks on the higher dose of Qsymia, a patient does not lose at least five percent of body weight, then Qsymia should be discontinued, as these patients are unlikely to achieve clinically meaningful weight loss with continued treatment. 

Qsymia must not be used in patients with glaucoma or hyperthyroidism. Qsymia can increase heart rate; this drug’s effect on heart rate in patients at high risk for heart attack or stroke is not known. Therefore, the use of Qsymia in patients with recent (within the last six months) or unstable heart disease or stroke is not recommended. Regular monitoring of heart rate is recommended for all patients taking Qsymia, especially when starting Qsymia or increasing the dose. 

The most common side effects of Qsymia are tingling of hands and feet (paresthesia), dizziness, altered taste sensation, insomnia, constipation, and dry mouth. 

Qsymia is marketed by Vivus Inc. in Mountain View, Calif.

People fighting the Battle of the Bulge have a new weapon in their arsenal with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) approval of Qsymia (phentermi...

Three Steps To Help Women Lose Weight

Save your money, these tips cost nothing

There are all kinds of diets and weight-control products on the market, but losing weight isn't complicated and doesn't have to be expensive. Researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center say there are three things that cost nothing that can help people -- women especially -- lose weight.

Dr. Anne McTiernan and her colleagues were studying the impact of a wide range of self-monitoring and diet-related behaviors and meal patterns on weight change among overweight and obese postmenopausal women when they made their finding.

The first step is to keep a food journal. Faithfully record everything you eat each day.

The second step is to eat three meals a day. Skipping a meal here and there doesn't help, it actually hurts the weight-control process, the researchers said.

The third step is to avoid eating in restaurants. Restaurant meals, especially lunch, can easily torpedo your diet routine.

Reducing calories is the goal

“When it comes to weight loss, evidence from randomized, controlled trials comparing different diets finds that restricting total calories is more important than diet composition such as low-fat versus low-carbohydrate. Therefore, the specific aim of our study was to identify behaviors that supported the global goal of calorie reduction,” McTiernan said.

Specifically, McTiernan and colleagues found that:

  • Women who kept food journals consistently lost about 6 pounds more than those who did not
  • Women who reported skipping meals lost almost 8 fewer pounds than women who did not
  • Women who ate out for lunch at least weekly lost on average 5 fewer pounds than those who ate out less frequently. Eating out often at all meal times was associated with less weight loss, but the strongest association was observed with lunch.

“For individuals who are trying to lose weight, the No. 1 piece of advice based on these study results would be to keep a food journal to help meet daily calorie goals. It is difficult to make changes to your diet when you are not paying close attention to what you are eating,” said McTiernan, director of the Hutchinson Center’s Prevention Center and a member of its Public Health Sciences Division.

Be honest

If you keep a food journal, McTiernan said its important that you be honest, accurate and complete. You should also be consistent. That means carrying your food journal with you at all times, or using a diet-tracking app on your smartphone.

The reason not to skip meals is it can cause you to crave high-calorie foods and eat more than you might otherwise. Eating in restaurants may cause you to make unhealthy food choices.

“Eating in restaurants usually means less individual control over ingredients and cooking methods, as well as larger portion sizes,” the authors wrote.

There are all kinds of diets and weight-control products on the market, but losing weight isn't complicated and doesn't have to be expensive. Researchers a...

FDA Approves Anti-Obesity Drug Belviq

Approval comes despite opposition from leading consumer health group

Another weapon in the battle against obesity. 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Belviq (lorcaserin hydrochloride), as an addition to a reduced-calorie diet and exercise, for chronic weight management. 

Public Citizen's Health Research Group blasted the move as “reckless."

"We expect that as with many of the other drugs, this one will be withdrawn from the market after the agency is forced to confront the many serious adverse health effects, such as heart valve damage, that will be reported," said the group's director, Dr. Sidney Wolfe. 

Heart valve issues 

Regarding that concern, FDA says heart valve function was assessed by echocardiography in nearly 8,000 patients in the Belviq development program. There was no statistically significant difference in the development of FDA-defined valve abnormalities between Belviq and placebo-treated patients. 

Because preliminary data suggest that the number of serotonin 2B receptors may be increased in patients with congestive heart failure, Belviq should be used with caution in patients with this condition. Belviq has not been studied in patients with serious valvular heart disease. 

The drug’s manufacturer will be required to conduct six post-marketing studies, including a long-term cardiovascular outcomes trial to assess the effect of Belviq on the risk for major adverse cardiac events such as heart attack and stroke. 

Use driven by BMI 

The drug is approved for use in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater (obese), or adults with a BMI of 27 or greater (overweight) and who have at least one weight-related condition such as high blood pressure (hypertension), type 2 diabetes, or high cholesterol (dyslipidemia). 

BMI, which measures body fat based on an individual’s weight and height, is used to define the obesity and overweight categories. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one-third of adults in the United States are obese. 

Belviq works by activating the serotonin 2C receptor in the brain. Activation of this receptor may help a person eat less and feel full after eating smaller amounts of food. 

Not for everyone 

Belviq should not be used during pregnancy. Treatment with Belviq may cause serious side effects, including serotonin syndrome, particularly when taken with certain medicines that increase serotonin levels or activate serotonin receptors. These include, but are not limited to, drugs commonly used to treat depression and migraine. Belviq may also cause disturbances in attention or memory. 

In 1997, the weight-loss drugs fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn from the market after evidence emerged that they caused heart valve damage. This effect is assumed to be related to activation of the serotonin 2B receptor on heart tissue. When used at the approved dose of 10 milligrams twice a day, Belviq does not appear to activate the serotonin 2B receptor. 

The most common side effects of Belviq in non-diabetic patients are headache, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, dry mouth, and constipation, and in diabetic patients are low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), headache, back pain, cough, and fatigue. 

Anti-obesity drug approved despite opposition from some...

Health Experts Skeptical of New York's Big Beverage Ban

Some call the idea 'short-sighted' and minimize soda's contribution to obesity

New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg riled the beverage industry with his proposal to ban large sugary beverages at food establishments, in an effort to combat obesity.

Many health experts who have weighed-in on the subject say the Mayor may have been well intentioned, but the plan probably won't meet its objective. Experts at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) say by focusing on one product the city could be missing the big picture in the obesity battle.

In fact, in 2009 a team of researchers from the UAB School of Public Health and Purdue University reviewed five randomized trials that studied the effect of drinking sugar-sweetened beverages on body weight.

“We found no significant effect on overall weight reduction as a result of reducing intake of sugar-sweetened beverages,” said Kathryn Kaiser, Ph.D., instructor in the SOPH. “Since this was published, two other randomized trials have been published, and neither showed large effects on weight change.”

Kaiser says energy should be directed toward the design and conduct of randomized trials that will definitively answer the questions about actions that can significantly reduce weight. That, she says, has a better chance of producing effective policies.


“I think to say people drinking large sodas at events is the cause of obesity is short sighted and it is making a villain out of something that may not be the true villain,” said Suzanne Judd, Ph.D., assistant professor of biostatistics at UAB. “I think that while reducing consumption of sugar sweetened beverages is important, I don’t think making it unavailable in certain settings is a way to accomplish that.”

Consumers posting comments on our original story about the proposed ban were, for the most part, also skeptical.

“Another example of failing to consider second, third, etc. order consequences of a policy,” Earl, of Arlington, Va., wrote. “Folks wanting 20 or 24 ounces will buy two 16-ounce drinks. Hence, yet more calories.”

Judd said she thinks that individuals are ultimately responsible for their own health and the actions they take related to it.

“People make their own choices and we can’t force them into those decisions. A public health effort must be made so they can better understand the consequences of their choices,” Judd said.

New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg riled the beverage industry with his proposal to ban large sugary beverages at food establishments, in an effort to c...

Remote Coaching Can Help With Weight Loss

Study finds that technology and financial incentives can improve diet, activity level

Looking for a way to take weight off and keep it off? Forget the fad diets and hyped exercises -- the answer may lie with remote coaching by email, financial incentives and other modification behavior techniques, according to a report of a randomized controlled trial published in the May 28 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication. 

It's no secret that not following a physician’s lifestyle change advice is a common problem. Many physicians are skeptical that patients will change their unhealthy behaviors, and physicians also report a lack of time and training to effectively counsel their patients, researchers write in the study background.

“This study’s interventions leveraged handheld technology to create efficient interventions that make self-monitoring more convenient, extend decision support into life contexts where lifestyle choices are made, and convey time-stamped behavioral data to paraprofessionals who provide coaching remotely,” the researchers note.

Bonnie Spring, Ph.D., of Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, and colleagues randomly assigned 204 adult patients (48 men) with elevated intake of saturated fat and low intake of fruits and vegetables, and high sedentary leisure time and low physical activity into 1 of 4 treatments.

The treatments were: increase fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, decrease fat and sedentary leisure, decrease fat and increase physical activity, and increase fruit/vegetable intake and decrease sedentary leisure. Patients used personal digital assistant devices to record and self-regulate their behaviors.

Daily uploads

During three weeks of treatment, patients uploaded their data daily and communicated as needed with their coaches by telephone or by email. The participants could earn $175 for meeting goals during the treatment phase. In addition, there was a 20-week follow-up during which patients could earn from $30 to $80 for continuing to record and transmit their data.

“The increase fruits/vegetables and decrease sedentary leisure treatment maximized healthy lifestyle change compared with the other interventions,” the authors comment. They note that lifestyle gains diminished once treatment ended, as expected, but improvements persisted throughout the follow-up period.

From baseline to the end of treatment to the end of the follow-up, respectively, mean (average) servings per day of fruits/vegetables changed from 1.2 to 5.5 to 2.9, mean minutes per day of sedentary leisure from 219.2 to 89.3 to 125.7, and daily calories from saturated fat from 12 percent to 9.4 percent to 9.9 percent, according to the study results.

“This study demonstrates the feasibility of changing multiple unhealthy diet and activity behaviors simultaneously, efficiently and with minimal face-to-face contact by using mobile technology, remote coaching, and incentives,” the authors comment.

Looking for a way to take weight off and keep it off? Forget the fad diets and hyped exercises -- the answer may lie with remote coaching by email, financi...

Survey: Americans Confused About What's Healthy Food

Consumers say they would like more information about what they should eat

Is it possible that obesity is the problem it is because American just don't know how to eat properly any longer?

It doesn't seem likely since children are supposed to learn about nutrition in school and government agencies have been offering guidance for decades. But the International Food Information Council (IFIC) Foundation’s 2012 Food & Health Survey offers some intriguing results.

First, it found that most people think a great deal about the healthfulness of their diets and want to make improvements. Yet an overwhelming majority confessed to not really knowing what to eat to be healthy and maintain a healthy weight.


Seventy-six percent said that ever-changing nutritional guidance makes it hard to know what to believe. And when it comes to making decisions about food, consumers today rely most often on their own research rather than third-party experts.

Six out of 10 Americans have given a lot of thought to the foods and beverages they consume and the amount of physical activity they get. Yet, only 20 percent say their diet is very healthful and 23 percent describe their diet as extremely or very unhealthful; less than 20 percent meet the national Physical Activity Guidelines.

“This year’s Survey was designed to reveal consumer behavior, not just thoughts and desires. Clearly, there is a disconnect for many Americans,” said Marianne Smith Edge, Senior Vice President, Nutrition and Food Safety, IFIC Foundation. “Some questions also reveal clear differences based on gender and age.

Gender differences

For example, men feel it is harder to eat a healthful diet than to find time to exercise, while women feel just the opposite. Older respondents tended to value a healthy diet while younger people did not.

The Survey found that 90 percent of Americans have given at least a little thought to the ingredients in their food and beverages. Consumers say they are trying to eat more whole grains, fiber and protein, while cutting calories, sugar, solid fats and salt.

However, 87 percent said the most important factor in the food they choose is taste, followed by price, which dropped significantly as a factor compared to 2011, and healthfulness. In terms of trying to lead healthier lives, nearly 60 percent of Americans believe that online and mobile tools are helpful.

While 55 percent of Americans said they are trying to lose weight, 23 percent of obese consumers and 44 percent of overweight consumers say they are not trying to lose weight.

Fewer than one in 10 U.S. consumers could correctly estimate the number of calories they need to maintain their weight and only three in 10 believe that all sources of calories play an equal role in weight gain.

Is is possible that obesity is the problem it is because American just don't know how to eat properly any longer?It doesn't seem likely since children ar...

Study: Water With Meals Promotes Better Food Choices

Sweet beverages make us want to eat more salty, high-calorie food

Most weight-loss programs focus on what we eat. Two researchers, T. Bettina Cornwell of the University of Oregon and Anna R. McAlister of Michigan State University, say we should pay more attention to what we drink.

In a paper written up in the journal Appetite, they conclude that beverages consumed with a meal provide a powerful influence. It's not so much the calories in the beverages, it's how they play with your taste buds.

The paper featured separate studies. One involved a survey of 60 young U.S. adults between the ages of 19 and 23. The second involved 75 children, three to five years old.

The older group was served soda and chose salty, high-calorie foods to go with it. Preschoolers ate more raw vegetables, either carrots or red peppers, when accompanied with water rather than when accompanied by a sweetened beverage.

Influencing taste preference

"Our taste preferences are heavily influenced by repeated exposure to particular foods and drinks," said Cornwell. "This begins early through exposure to meals served at home and by meal combinations offered by many restaurants. Our simple recommendation is to serve water with all meals. Restaurants easily could use water as their default drink in kids' meal combos and charge extra for other drink alternatives."

Serving water, McAlister said, could be a simple and effective dietary change to help address the nation's growing obesity problem, which has seen increasing number of diabetes cases in young adults and a rise in health-care costs in general.

Drinking water with meals, Cornwell said, also would reduce dehydration. While estimates of dehydration vary by sources, many estimates suggest that 75 percent of adult Americans are chronically dehydrated.

Switching to water might help children the most. From an early age, Cornwell said, children learn to associate sweet, high-calorie drinks such as colas with salty and fatty high-calorie-containing foods like French fries.

"If the drink on the table sets the odds against both adults and children eating their vegetables, then perhaps it is time to change that drink, and replace it with water," Cornwell said.

Most weight-loss programs focus on what we eat. Two researchers, T. Bettina Cornwell of the University of Oregon and Anna R. McAlister of Michigan State Un...

Researchers Working On Anti-Obesity Pill

Manipulating heart protein allows control of metabolism

For years the weight loss industry has been searching for a magic bullet: a pill obese consumers could take and lose weight. A pill that would allow you to eat what you want and not gain weight.

Too good to be true? Researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas say maybe not. Working with mice, they have found that manipulating a genetic pathway in the heart can speed up metabolism and burn calories faster.

The experiments, in which laboratory mice were fed a high-fat diet, also found that manipulating a heart-specific genetic pathway prevents obesity and protects against harmful blood-sugar changes associated with type 2 diabetes.

The scientists report their findings in the April 27 issue of of the journal Cell.

There have been a number of attempts to regulate human metabolism, seen as a key factor in weight control. This attempt is different, researchers say, because for the first time, they have found a way to use the heart to control the burn rate, and in the long run, improve human health.

Promoting health

“Obesity, diabetes, and coronary artery disease are major causes of human death and disability, and they are all connected to metabolism,” said Dr. Eric Olson, chairman of molecular biology at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study. “This is the first demonstration that the heart can regulate systemic metabolism, which we think opens up a whole new area of investigation.

What was most impressive, the researchers say, was the fact the test mice stayed at a normal weight despite being fed a diet high in fat. But when the protein in their heart was no longer manipulated, they quickly became obese.

The research team is using the protein isolated in the heart to develop a drug that would not only prevent obesity, but obesity-related disease like high cholesterol and Type 2 diabetes.

The researchers say there will be more animal testing before such a drug is ever tested on humans.

For years the weight loss industry has been searching for a magic bullet: a pill obese consumers could take and lose weight. A pill that would allow you to...

Red Wine May Block Fat Cells

Piceatannol, a substance in red wine, interferes with formation of fat cells

If red wine enthusiasts need another reason to indulge their favorite passion, here it is: piceatannol, a substance found in red grapes, may help keep you trim.

Researchers at Purdue University report piceatannol has a structure similar to another substance found in red wine, resveratrol, which may hold some health benefits of its own.

Kee-Hong Kim, an assistant professor of food science, and Jung Yeon Kwon, a graduate student in Kim's laboratory, say piceatannol is able to block cellular processes that allow fat cells to develop, opening a door to a potential method to control obesity.

Alters the timing

"Piceatannol actually alters the timing of gene expressions, gene functions and insulin action during adipogenesis, the process in which early stage fat cells become mature fat cells," Kim said. "In the presence of piceatannol, you can see delay or complete inhibition of adipogenesis."

Previous studies of red win have focused mostly on resveratrol, which is also found in peanuts, and is believed to be helpful in combating cancer and heart and cognitive diseases. It turns out that resveratrol is converted to piceatannol in humans after consumption.

While similar in structure to resveratrol – the compound found in red wine, grapes and peanuts that is thought to combat cancer, heart disease and neurodegenerative diseases – piceatannol might be an important weapon against obesity.

The way the researchers explain it, fat cells reach maturity over a relatively short period of time.


Kim found that piceatannol, in effect, interferes with that process. Piceatannol essentially blocks the pathways necessary for immature fat cells to mature and grow.

Increasingly, red wine is being analyzed for its potential health benefits. Besides studies suggesting it is helpful in preventing various types of cancer, a National Institutes of Health study earlier this year tried to figure out why.

Researchers found that resveratrol does not directly activate sirtuin 1, a protein associated with aging. Rather, the authors found that resveratrol inhibits certain types of proteins known as phosphodiesterases (PDEs), enzymes that help regulate cell energy.

These findings may help settle the debate regarding resveratrol's biochemistry and pave the way for resveratrol-based medicines.

If red wine enthusiasts need another reason to indulge their favorite passion, here it is: piceatannol, a substance found in red grapes, may help keep you ...

Eat More Chocolate, Lose More Weight?

It's not quite that simple but the answer may be "maybe"

Eat chocolate and lose weight? Maybe, but it's not quite that simple. 

According to a research letter in the March 26 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals, frequently eating chocolate was linked to lower body mass index (BMI), As other studies have suggested, the latest study finds that eating certain types of chocolate has been linked to some favorable metabolic associations with blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and cholesterol level. However, because chocolate can be a calorie-laden sweet there are concerns about eating it.

In February 2011, Japanese scientists followed up on earlier studies that have shown cocoa, the main ingredient in chocolate, appears to reduce the risk of heart disease by boosting levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol, and decreasing levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol

In the latest study, Beatrice A. Golomb, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues with the University of California, San Diego, studied 1,018 men and woman without known cardiovascular disease, diabetes or extremes of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels who were screened for participation in a clinical study examining noncardiac effects of statins. To measure chocolate consumption, 1,017 of the participants answered a question about how many times per week they ate chocolate. BMI was calculated for 972 of them. Of the participants, 975 completed a food frequency questionnaire. 

“Adults who consumed chocolate more frequently had a lower BMI than those who consumed chocolate less often,” the authors note.

Participants had a mean (average) age of 57 years, 68 percent were men and the mean BMI was 28. They ate chocolate a mean (average) of two times a week and exercised 3.6 times a week.

“In conclusion, our findings – that more frequent chocolate intake is linked to lower BMI – are intriguing,” the authors conclude. “A randomized trial of chocolate for metabolic benefits in humans may be merited.”

The study was funded by a grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health.

Japanese study

In their study, the Japanese researchers said that credit for those heart-healthy effects goes to a cadre of antioxidant compounds in cocoa called polyphenols, which are particularly abundant in dark chocolate.

The scientists analyzed the effects of cocoa polyphenols on cholesterol using cultures of human liver and intestinal cells. They focused on the production of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), a protein that is the major component of "good" cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (ApoB), the main component of "bad" cholesterol.

What they discovered was cocoa polyphenols increased ApoA1 levels and decreased ApoB levels in both the liver and intestine.

Additionally, the scientists discovered the polyphenols seem to work by enhancing the activity of so-called sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs).

SREBPs attach to the genetic material DNA and activate genes that boost ApoA1 levels, increasing "good" cholesterol. The scientists also found polyphenols appear to increase the activity of LDL receptors, proteins that help lower "bad" cholesterol levels.

Eat chocolate and lose weight? Maybe, but it's not quite that simple. According to a research letter in the March 26 issue of Archives of Inter...

Lawsuit Claims Kim Kardashian Weight Loss Claims Are Bogus

Class action says QuickTrim claims are false and misleading

Would the Kardashian sisters lead you astray?  A proposed class action lawsuit says the reality TV star and two of her sisters have made false claims about QuickTrim diet pills.

The lawsuit says the pills amount to little more than caffeine with a few herbal ingredients thrown in and says the claims made by the Kardashians are "false, misleading, and unsubstantiated."

The plaintiffs in the case live in New York, California and Florida and alleged that they purchased the diet pills because of the Kardashians' endorsements.

The suit, filed in federal court in New York, seeks over $5 million in damages.  It was filed by the law firm of Bursor & Fisher.

Kim Kardashian, 31, made an estimated $65 million in 2010 from her TV shows, clothing line and numerous endorsements of fitness, beauty and weight-loss products.

Would the Kardashian sisters lead you astray?  A proposed class action lawsuit says the reality TV star and two of her sisters have made false claims ...

Advisory Panel Recommends Approving New Diet Drug

Another panel turned thumbs down on same drug in 2010

Despite reservations about issues with past drugs, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory panel has recommended approval of the weight loss drug Qnexa. The vote was 20-2. The FDA does not have to follow an advisory panel's recommendation, but it usually does.

The panel said, if Qnexa wins FDA approval, it should be closely monitored in a clinical trial to make sure it is safe.

Many anti-obesity groups have pleaded with the FDA to approve a drug for use in weight control. It has been 13 years since there has been a new approved weight-loss pill on the market.

Second attempt at approval

Previously, the FDA rejected Qnexa, saying it had concerns about potential side effects, including heart problems and birth defects in children of women taking the drug during pregnancy. In July 2010, another FDA panel advised against approving Qnexa and the FDA followed the recommendation.

Some doctors who treat obesity complain that the FDA sets a higher standard for weight control drugs than it does for other types of pharmaceutical products. That may be because of past experience.

The last major weight control drug disaster was fen-phen, which was withdrawn from the market in 1997 after it was shown to cause heart valve damage. Qnexa includes phentermine, part of the phen-fen cocktail that was allowed to stay on the market. The drug company said people taking Qnexa in clinical trials reported success in losing weight.

Phentermine now used alone

Currently, some doctors are prescribing phentermine, which Emily, of Irvine, Calif., reported last December presented her with some negative side effects.

"The first 3 weeks, I dropped 20 pounds," Emily wrote in a post on ConsumerAffairs. "I was eating a regular based 1400 calorie diet with fruits and vegetables. In week 4, I was losing my hair. In week 5, my heart began racing even if I climbed a flight of stairs to go to my apartment. In week 6, my face was extremely pale. Looking back at photos, I looked very pale and almost gray."

In clinical trials, Qnexa helped patients lose about 10 percent of their body weight. While that might not be enough to make an obese person think, advocates say that small amount of weight loss could be helpful.

FDA panel recommends Qnexa but recommends close safety monitoring...

Some Medicines Promote Weight Gain

That pill you're taking could be packing on the pounds

It's hard to lose weight this time of year. Those New Year's resolutions may be going unfulfilled, not because you lack willpower, but perhaps because of the prescription medication you are taking.

Surprisingly, certain medicines can cause significant weight changes, which can be challenging for anyone wanting to shed pounds or maintain weight.

Weight side-effects are common in medicines used for diabetes, high-blood pressure and mental health conditions. Big gainers are likely for users of steroids for cancer treatment and women on birth control, while some antidepressants like Prozac and Wellbutrin are known for weight losses.

“Because of the stigma of weight gain, patients may tend to stop taking their medicines or decrease their dosage without talking to their physician,” said Ryan Roux, chief pharmacy officer, at Houston's Harris County Hospital District. “Doing this is a bad thing. It can affect your health in a number of negative ways.”

Talk to your doctor

Roux says patients should tell their physicians about any weight changes. The weight gains or losses could mean reassessing types of medicine or dosages taken. Additionally, gaining weight could increase the chances of developing diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol.

Your healthcare provider should advise you of any potential side effects associated with your medication.

Is your medication one that promotes weight gain? Take a look at the list below, provided by the Harris County Health District.


  • Actos (pioglitazone) 
  • Amaryl (glimepiride)
  • Insulins


  • Actos (pioglitazone)
  • Amaryl (glimepiride)
  • Insulins


  • Lopressor (metoprolol)
  • Tenormin (atenolol)
  • Inderal (propranolol)
  • Norvasc (amlodipine)
  • Clonidine


  • Paxil (paroxetine)
  • Zoloft (sertraline)
  • Amitripyline
  • Remeron (mirtazapine)


  • Clozaril (clozapine)
  • Zyprexa (olanzapine)
  • Risperdal (risperidone
  • Seroquel (quetiapine)
  • Lithium
  • Valproic Acid
  • Carbamazepine

Antiepileptic Drugs:

  • Carbamazapine
  • Neurontin (gabapentin)
It's hard to lose weight this time of year. Those New Year's resolutions may be going unfulfilled, not because you lack willpower, but because of the presc...

Chocolate Bars Will Soon Be Shrinking

Mars wants to get its chocolate bars under the 250-calorie mark

Yes, chocolate is good for you ... but only up to a point.  And Mars Inc. has decided that point falls right at 250 calories.

The candy giant says that by the end of next year, all of its chocolate products will contain no more than 250 calories.  The king-sized Snickers bar will be among the targets of the slimdown. 

The calorie limit is part of the company's "broad-based commitment to health and nutrition," said spokeswoman Marlene Machut.

Mars, which makes a great deal of its environmental, social and health commitment, previously announced it would reduce sodium levels in all its products by 25 percent by 2015.

In 2007, the company promised not to buy advertising if more than one quarter of the audience was expected to be under 12 years old.

Based in McLean, Virginia, Mars has net sales of more than $30 billion and six business segments including Petcare, Chocolate, Wrigley, Food, Drinks and Symbioscience. 

Yes, chocolate is good for you ... but only up to a point.  And Mars Inc. has decided that point falls right at 250 calories.The candy giant says th...

10 Tips For Avoiding Holiday Weight Gain

Make January's weight loss resolutions easier to keep

There's a very good reason that so many New Year's resolutions involve losing weight. The previous month often includes holiday parties and family feasts that add to the weight that needs shedding in January.

What if you could avoid putting on those extra pounds in the first place? A team of medical experts at Greenwich Hospital’s Weight Loss & Diabetes Center, in Connecticut, has come up with 10 tips for avoiding holiday weight gain.

  1. Set realistic expectations. Consider patterns in your weight during previous holiday periods. This is usually a time to maintain, not lose, weight.
  2. Schedule downtime. If you tend to have a lot of social events and responsibilities on your calendar, also schedule times to relax. It’s equally important for your overall health.
  3. Plan your meals and snacks ahead of time as best as you can. It’s easy to get distracted and pick up something "quick and easy" from a fast food restaurant. Instead, bring an apple, banana or small bag of nuts to eat in the car as a healthy snack.
  4. Write it down. This applies to a meal and snack schedule, and also to a food diary of everything you eat. Review it at the end of the day and start again the next day.
  5. Ask for help. It's nice to take care of others, but not to the point that it gets in the way of eating healthy, exercising adequately, and getting enough sleep for your personal health.
  6. Never go to a holiday party hungry. It’s a sure bet that you’ll overindulge on calorie-dense foods, and you'll be overeating in no time, but don’t get down on yourself for a special-occasion binge.
  7. Engage in mindful eating. In other words, don’t eat while multitasking. Savor each bite, focus on the joy of flavor. Appreciate every morsel.
  8. Drink water throughout the day and at events. Staying well hydrated can keep you alert. People often misread the body’s signals for thirst as hunger.
  9. Use exercise to relieve stress and empower you with physical and mental energy to follow your healthy holiday plans. Take a daily walk, even if it's only for a few minutes. This will help clear your head, regain perspective, help control your hunger and bump up your rate of metabolism.
  10. Get an adequate amount of sleep. When you are tired, simplest daily tasks can be a struggle, not to mention all of the holiday hustling. Lack of sleep triggers hormones that affect your weight and mood.
advice for avoiding putting on pounds during the holidays...

Controlling Leftovers Helps Control Weight

Holiday temptations don't end when the meal is over

This time of year can be murder on the waistline. Holiday parties and family dinners provide lots of temptation. Controlling your desires at these events is crucial to maintaining a healthy weight during the holidays.

But nutritionists point out the danger is not just at these events, but can linger afterward if they result in a refrigerator full of leftovers. Very often, the restraint you show at the dinner table seems to melt once the leftover food has been stored in microwavable dishes.

“Unfortunately, most people don’t shed extra holiday weight and just keep adding pounds year after year,” said Mary Ellen Herndon, wellness dietitian at the University of Texas. “And, unhealthy weight gain can put you at greater risk for diseases like cancer.”

Make a game plan

Herndon says you should make a game plan for leftovers.

“Right after a holiday meal, divide all leftovers into one-half cup servings,” Herndon said. “Refrigerate enough for a day or two and freeze the rest.”

Don't just reheat leftovers - turn them into new, healthy dishes. For example, white turkey meat can be used in chili instead of ground beef. Instead of a turkey sandwich, create turkey wraps, using whole wheat tortillas.

Sweet potatoes can be used to make a protein-packed sandwich spread or veggie dip by pureeing one-half cup sweet potatoes with one-half cup chickpeas. Eat only one or two tablespoons at a time.

Small is beautiful

Keep servings small. Whether eating a holiday meal, snacking on appetizers at a party or indulging in leftovers, keeping off the extra pounds starts with portion control.

Herndon says women should try to keep each meal to around 500 calories; men should strive for 700. Find the calorie counts and serving sizes for favorite holiday foods by using an online calorie calcuator.

Finally, one way to avoid overindulging is to get leftovers out of sight. Here’s how:

  • Give guests “doggie bags.” Have containers ready to speed up the process.
  • Give leftovers to relatives or friends who don’t cook or join the festivities.
  • Donate canned or boxed foods, as well as unopened store-bought baked goods to a food bank or homeless shelter.
Controlling Leftovers Helps Control Weight: Controlling your desires at these events is crucial to maintaining a healthy weight during the holidays....

'Homeopathic' HCG Weight Loss Products May Be Banned

FDA, FTC say the products are dangerous and unproven

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) have issued seven Warning Letters to companies marketing over-the counter (OTC) HCG products that are labeled as “homeopathic” for weight loss.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone produced by the human placenta and found in the urine of pregnant women. HCG is FDA-approved as an injectable prescription drug for the treatment of some cases of female infertility and other medical conditions.

The letters warn the companies that they are violating federal law by selling drugs that have not been approved, and by making unsupported claims for the substances. There are no FDA-approved HCG drug products for weight loss.

The joint action is the first step in keeping the unproven and potentially unsafe products from being marketed online and in retail outlets as oral drops, pellets, and sprays.

Side effects

The labeling for the “homeopathic” HCG products states that each product should be taken in conjunction with a very low calorie diet. There is no substantial evidence HCG increases weight loss beyond that resulting from the recommended caloric restriction.  Consumers on a very low calorie diet are at increased risk for side effects including gallstone formation, electrolyte imbalance, and heart arrhythmias. 

“These HCG products marketed over-the-counter are unproven to help with weight loss and are potentially dangerous even if taken as directed,” said Ilisa Bernstein, acting director of the Office of Compliance in FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “And a very low calorie diet should only be used under proper medical supervision.”

“Deceptive advertising about weight loss products is one of the most prevalent types of fraud,” said David Vladeck, director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “Any advertiser who makes health claims about a product is required by federal law to back them up with competent and reliable scientific evidence, so consumers have the accurate information they need to make good decisions.”

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) have issued seven Warning Letters to companies marketing over-the counter (OTC...

How Not To Blow Your Diet At Thanksgiving

Researchers say environmental cues influence our eating habits

You've been doing a great job sticking to your diet and the pounds are starting to come off. But now comes the Thanksgiving holiday, with its huge meals and tempting desserts.

David Levitsky is a professor of nutritional sciences, as well as psychology, at Cornell University. He and graduate student Carly Pacanowski have written an article for the journal Public Health Nutrition that makes for timely reading this week.

In it, Levitsky and Pacanowski argue that we get subconscious cues that influence our eating every day. Many can be reinforced at holidays like Thanksgiving.

For example, watching others eat can influence how much - and what - you consumer. If Aunt Lucinda throws caution to the wind and piles on the gravy, or samples everything on the dessert tray, it can affect our own willpower.

Portion size

The article finds portion size has emerged as one of the most powerful links to overeating. That significant when it comes to a traditional meal like Thanksgiving.

“And it’s not just the amount you put on your plate, but also the package size from which the food comes determines how much you will eat,” Levitsky said.

By consciously taking small portions of the Thanksgiving meal, dieters can get through the holiday without blowing up their diet. Being conscious of how much you are eating, the authors argue, is the key element of sticking to a diet, during the holidays or all year round.

The article suggests dieters can weigh themselves and graph the results on a daily basis to counter these forces because it boosts one’s awareness of unconscious eating. It also suggests that the government plays a role in combating the obesity epidemic by subsidizing fruits and vegetables, making low-calorie foods cheaper.

You've been doing a great job sticking to your diet and the pounds are starting to come off. But now comes the Thanksgiving holiday, with its huge meals an...

How To Lose Weight and Keep It Off

Johns Hopkins researchers say they have the answer

The airwaves are filled with commercials for diets that promise results. Since those promises come from companies trying to sell a diet product, you tend to take those claims with a grain of salt.

But when the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine publishes an article on a successful method to lose weight and keep it off, you tend to pay attention. Just such an article is in the latest issue.

Researchers at Johns Hopkins say they found that obese patients enrolled in a weight-loss program delivered over the phone by health coaches and with website and physician support lost weight and kept it off for two years. The program was just as effective as another weight-loss program that involved in-person coaching sessions.

A 40 percent success rate

Roughly 40 percent of obese patients enrolled in each of the two weight-loss programs lost at least five percent of their body weight, an amount associated with real health benefits such as lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol and better diabetes control, the researchers say.

“Until now, doctors had no proven strategy to help their patients lose weight and keep it off. Now, we have two programs that work,” said study leader Lawrence J. Appel, M.D., M.P.H., a professor of medicine and director of the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Bloomberg School of Public Health.

You won't find such a weight loss program in the frozen food section of your local supermarket, however. And when it does become commercially available, it probably won't be cheap, since it requires hands-on participation of health professionals.

Why it works

The may be several reasons it's effective, says Appel. Frequent counseling (by phone or in person), physician support and an interactive website with tools to track weight and provide regular feedback by email are the main factors.

Patients were encouraged to sign in at least weekly to the program’s website to track their weight and to learn how to reduce it. If patients didn’t log in for more than a week, they got automated reminders. If they were out of touch for too long, patients got phone calls from their coaches and letters from their doctors.

Researchers say they have developed a weight loss program that works...

Super-Sized Candy Bars Are Super Sellers

Convenience stores report brisk sales of big bars

It had to come to this.  First it was super-sized burgers and fries, then Starbucks' Trenta. Now it's the king-sized candy bar that's flying off the shelves (and onto customers' hips but that's another story).

Yep.  Hot from Hershey, Pa., comes news that sales of king-sized Hershey bars are up about 18%.  Not only that, but Hershey says it is the kind-size leader with a 54%  share of the market for bigger bars.

"King-size conversion has progressed nicely due to merchandising, continued distribution gains, innovation and consumer recognition that this is a good price/value proposition," said Hershey Chief Executive John Bilbrey.

Yes, and also because they're really big candy bars.

It's not just candy bars that are making the cash register ring, though.  Bilbrey is also smiling over sales of Reese's Minis king-size.  It's hard to see how Minis can be king-size but Bilbrey must know.  After all, he's the candy man.

If you lie awake nights wondering what's in the candy pipeline, Bilbrey told market analysts that he expects to "launch some close-end line extensions that will bring variety and excitement to some existing brands including Hershey's Drops, Cookies 'n' Cream at a king-size pack price, Hershey's Pieces Milk Chocolate with Almonds, and Jolly Rancher Crunch 'N Chew," according to trade papers.

Besides helping build Hershey's bottom line, the new king-sized bars should also help build consumers' bottoms, as they rationalize that it is, after all, just a single candy bar. 

It had to come to this.  First it was super-sized burgers and fries, then Starbucks' Trenta, now it's the kinig-sized candy bar that's flying off the ...

Nutritionists Review Latest Diet Books

Professional dietitians offer their critiques

Eveyone, it seems, has an opinion about what you should and should not eat. Diet books are nearly always best sellers and popular diets can influence consumer behavior, for better or worse.

You should always discuss any change in your diet with your doctor, but in narrowing down your options, wouldn't it be helpful to know what nutritionists and dietitians think about your proposed choice?

“Every day, Americans are flooded with information about how to lose weight and feel great fast,” said Marjorie Nolan of the American Dietetic Association (ADA). “While some of these products and programs offer sound nutrition information, others are gimmicks and can even be dangerous.”

To help consumers separate diet fads from healthy, science-based options, registered dietitians who are media spokespeople of the American Dietetic Association have reviewed 15 of the latest diet and lifestyle books. You can read the reviews here.

The reviewed books include:

  • The 4 Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat–Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman by Timothy Ferriss (Crown Archetype December 2010)
  • The 17 Day Diet by Mike Moreno, MD (Simon & Schuster’s Free Press March 2011)
  • The Amen Solution by Daniel G. Amen, MD (Crown Archetype February 2011)
  • Cinch! Conquer Cravings, Drop Pounds and Lose Inches by Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD (Harper One January 2011)
  • Clean & Lean Diet by James Duigan (Kyle Books January 2011)
  • Crazy Sexy Diet: Eat Your Veggies, Ignite Your Spark and Live Life Like You Mean It! By Kriss Carr (Globe Pequot Press January 2011)
  • The Dukan Diet by Pierre Dukan, MD (Crown Archetype April 2011)
  • Full: A Life without Dieting by Michael A. Snyder, MD, FACS (Hay House January 2011)
  • The Game On! Diet by Krista Vernoff and Az Ferguson (HarperCollins June 2009)
  • Healthy Eating for Lower Blood Pressure by Paul Gayler with Gemma Heiser, MSc (Kyle Books February 2011)
  • The Italian Diet by Gino D’Acampo (Kyle Books February 2011)
  • Living Skinny in Fat Genes: The Healthy Way to Lose Weight and Feel Great by Felicia Stoler, DCN, MS, RD, FACSM (Pegasus Books January 2011)
  • The New Sonoma Diet: Trimmer Waist, More Energy in Just 10 Days by Connie Guttersen, PhD, RD (Sterling Publishing Company January 2011)
  • Prevent a Second Heart Attack by Janet Bond Brill, PhD, RD, LDN (Three Rivers Press February 2011)
  • The Super Health Diet: The Last Diet You Will Ever Needby KC Craichy (Living Fuel Publishing February 2011)

The reviews are designed to give consumers a view of the dietary advice from a health care professional's perspective, along with a healthy dose of realism.

“It is important for consumers to achieve a healthy weight in a way that is safe and provides their bodies with the nutrition they need to thrive,” Nolan said. “There is no miracle cure or overnight plan for healthy weight loss.”

Don't start a diet without getting a professional opinion...

Study: Americans Eating More, More Often

Researchers say the reason for obesity might not be that complicated

Figuring out the reasons behind the obesity epidemic may not be so difficult. A new study by researchers at the University of North Carolina finds that, in the last three decades, U.S. adults have been eating larger portions and eating more often.

“First, the food industry started ‘super sizing’ our portions, then snacking occasions increased and we were convinced we needed to drink constantly to be hydrated,” said Barry Popkin, Ph.D., the study’s senior author and a professor at UNC's School of Global Public Health. “This study shows how this epidemic has crept up on us. The negative changes in diet, activity and obesity continue and are leading to explosions in health-care costs and are leading us to become a less healthy society.”

The study, appearing in the journal PloS Medicine, is believed to be the first to examine the combined contribution of changes in three key factors; portion sizes, food energy density and eating frequency.

The study analyzed individuals’ dietary intake over a 24-hour period, based on surveys of U.S. adults taken between 1977–78, 1989–91, 1994–98 and 2003–06. It found that the average daily total energy intake, measured in calories, increased from about 1,803 kcal in 1977–78 to 2,374 kcal in 2003–06, an increase of 570 kcal.

Americans eat too often

Increases in the number of eating occasions and portion sizes of foods and beverages over the past 30 years accounted for most of the increase. Energy density - the number of calories in a specific amount of food - also accounted for some of the change, but may have decreased slightly in recent years, the researchers reported.

The study concludes that the key to obesity may be quite simple. The researchers say their findings suggest that efforts to prevent obesity among adults in the U.S should focus on reducing the number of meals and snacks people consume during the day and reducing portion size as a way to reduce the energy imbalance caused by recent increases in energy intake.

The researchers say they believe their findings also have relevance for developing countries, that have also experienced an obesity problem in recent years.

Researchers say Americans eat too much food and eat too often...

Synthetic Fat Substitutes Might Make You Gain Weight

Researchers say they confuse the body, causing you to eat more

Consumers trying to shed a few pounds instinctively reach for low fat products at the grocery store, but maybe they shouldn't. A new study says synthetic fat substitutes used in low-calorie potato chips and other foods could backfire and contribute to weight gain and obesity.

The study, by researchers at Purdue University, was published by the American Psychological Association. It challenges the conventional wisdom that foods made with fat substitutes help with weight loss.

“Our research showed that fat substitutes can interfere with the body’s ability to regulate food intake, which can lead to inefficient use of calories and weight gain,” said Susan E. Swithers, PhD, the lead researcher and a Purdue psychology professor.

For the experiment, lab rats were fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet of chow. Half of the rats in each group also were fed Pringles potato chips that are high in fat and calories.


The remaining rats in each group were fed high-calorie Pringles chips on some days and low-calorie Pringles Light chips on other days. The Pringles Light chips are made with olestra, a synthetic fat substitute that has zero calories and passes through the body undigested.

For rats on the high-fat diet, the group that ate both types of potato chips consumed more food, gained more weight and developed more fatty tissue than the rats that ate only the high-calorie chips. The fat rats also didn’t lose the extra weight even after the potato chips were removed from their diet.

“Based on this data, a diet that is low in fat and calories might be a better strategy for weight loss than using fat substitutes,” Swithers said.

However, she warned that it can be difficult to extrapolate laboratory findings about rats to people, even though their biological responses to food are similar. The study was conducted by Swithers along with Purdue psychology professor Terry L. Davidson, PhD, and former Purdue undergraduate student Sean Ogden.

Confusing the body

Why would a fat substitute confuse the body? Food with a sweet or fatty taste usually indicates a large number of calories, and the taste triggers various responses by the body, including salivation, hormonal secretions and metabolic reactions. Fat substitutes can interfere with that relationship when the body expects to receive a large burst of calories but is fooled by a fat substitute.

Olestra is no longer used in foods in Canada and the United Kingdom. In the U.S., the Center for Science in the Public Interest has waged a long campaign to have it banned, saying that it is unhealthy.

Researchers say synthetic fat substitutes like Olestra might make you gain even more weight...

Study: Dieters Duped By Food Names

Clever marketers can make their products sound healthier

Food marketers who put “salad” or some other healthy-sounding word in the name of their product have a better chance of selling it to health or diet conscious consumers, according to a new study. 

University of South Carolina assistant professor of marketing Dr. Caglar Irmak found that that dieters eager to make good food choices are more at risk of being misled by food names than non-dieters.

His study found that dieters rate food items with healthy names such as “salad” as being healthier than identical food items with less healthy names such as “pasta.” Non-dieters made no such distinction.

He conducted the study with co-authors Beth Vallen of Loyola University and Stefanie Rose Robinson, a doctoral student in marketing at South Carolina.

Dieters vulnerable to 'naming traps'

“The fact that people’s perceptions of healthfulness vary with the name of the food item isn’t surprising,” Irmak said. “What is interesting is that dieters, who try to eat healthy and care about what they eat, fell into these ‘naming traps’ more than non-dieters who really don’t care about healthy eating.”

As part of his study, Irmak took identical candy and labeled half of it “fruit chew.” The other half was packaged as “Candy Chew.” He then offered it to his test group of dieters.

Not only did dieters perceive the candy named fruit chew as more healthful than the one named candy chew, but they ate more candies when the items were called fruit chews.

Why are dieters who want to eat well so easily duped by these labels?

What's in a name?

Dieters avoid forbidden foods based on product names, Irmak said. As they hone in on food names – salad versus pasta – they give less consideration to product information.

On the flip side, Irmak said, non-dieters tend to miss cues that imply healthfulness, including names, because of their lack of focus on healthy eating.

A salad in a restaurant may include items that dieters typically would avoid, such as meat, cheese, bread or pasta. Other examples Irmak gives are milkshakes listed as “smoothies,” potato chips called “veggie chips” and sugary drinks labeled “favored water.”

He says dieters should focus on reading nutritional information on food products and menus and not food names.

“These results should give dieters pause. The study shows that dieters base their food decisions on the name of the food item instead of the ingredients of the item,” Irmak said. “As a result, they may eat more than what their dieting goals prescribe.”

Irmak and his colleagues based their conclusions on surveys and experiments involving more than 520 participants.

Researchers say people seeking a healthy diet put too much faith in a food product's name....

Obesity Vaccine Reduces Food Consumption In Tests

Gave lab mice more energy, made them less hungry

What if you could roll up your sleeve and get a shot that would make you eat less? Such an idea is not that far-fetched, say researchers from Portugal.

“An anti-ghrelin vaccine may become an alternate treatment for obesity, to be used in combination with diet and exercise,” said Mariana Monteiro, MD, PhD, an associate professor at the University of Porto in Portugal and lead investigator in the study.

Currently, there are few drugs available to help combat obesity. Last October, Abbott Laboratories and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced Meridia, also known as sibutramine, was being withdrawn from the U.S. market because of clinical trial data indicating an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.

The popular weight-loss drug fen-phen was taken off the market in 1997 after clinical trials showed it to cause heart valve damage.

Suppresses appetite

The new obesity vaccine works by suppressing the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin. In tests, it decreased food intake and increased calorie burning in mice.

Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that promotes weight gain by increasing appetite and food intake while decreasing energy expenditure, or calorie burning. Recent research shows that bariatric surgeries, such as gastric bypass, suppress ghrelin.

“This suggests that there is a hormonal mechanism underlying the weight loss attained by the surgical procedures,” Monteiro said.

Monteiro’s group developed the vaccine using a noninfectious virus carrying ghrelin, which was designed to provoke an immune response—development of antibodies against ghrelin—that would suppress the hormone.

They then vaccinated normal-weight mice and mice with diet-induced obesity three times and compared them with control mice that received only saline injections.

More energy, less food

Compared with unvaccinated controls, vaccinated mice — both normal-weight and obese mice — developed increasing amounts of specific anti-ghrelin antibodies, increased their energy expenditure and decreased their food intake, the authors reported.

Within 24 hours after the first vaccination injection, obese mice ate 82 percent of the amount that control mice ate, and after the final vaccination shot they ate only 50 percent of what unvaccinated mice ate, Monteiro said.

The effects of each vaccination lasted for the two months of the study, which for the normal 18-month lifespan of mice, corresponds to four human years, she said.

Researchers in Portugal say they have developed a vaccine that makes obese people eat less....

Class Action Challenges Sensa Weight-Loss Crystals

Despite claims, "sprinkles" do nothing to help users shed pounds, suit charges

Afederal class action accuses Sensa Products and Dr. Alan R. Hirsch of selling snake oil: "magic" "tasant" "crystals," a "new, clinically proven method of losing weight," with "no food restriction, and no change in lifestyle."

In the suit, filed in U.S. District Court in San Francisco, Jeannette McClendon of Contra Costa County, Calif., says she was tricked by Sensa's sales pitch into purchasing Sensa crystals, only to learn that the claims were without scientific foundation.

Instead of offering pills, liquid or specially-formulated food, Sensa sells what it describes as “sprinkles” – or crystals – that overweight consumers can sprinkle on their food, causing a weight loss of 30 pounds or more, all without dieting or exercise.

Moreover,” the complaint notes, “This strange approach to weight loss is 'Doctor Formulated' and 'Clinically Proven.'

According to the sales pitch, Sensa crystals work with your sense of smell to stimulate an area of your brain called the “satiety center,” which “tells your body it's time to quit eating.” The suit alleges the sales pitch is false, misleading and unsubstantiated and says there is no competent scientific evidence to support it.

The lawsuit concedes that Dr. Alan R. Hirsch, M.D., who appears in promotional materials for Sensa, is a broad-certified neurologist but refers to him as a “particularly sophisticated hustler, one with a medical degree and a thick stack of junk science to support the claim his magic crystals are 'clinically proven.'”

Dr. Hirsch has been able to get by with this, the suit charges, only because over-the-counter weight-control products have not been regulated as drugs since 1994, when Congress bowed to pressure from the dietary supplement industry and largely removed supplements from FDA regulation.

The suit charges that Sensa has violated various California laws, including those dealing with false advertising and unfair business practices.

Class Action Challenges Sensa Weight-Loss Crystals. Despite claims, "sprinkles" do nothing to help users shed pounds, suit charges....

FDA Expands Use of Lap-Band for Weight Loss

Controversial procedure is not without adverse reactions, poor outcomes

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has expanded the use of Allergan’s LAP-BAND Adjustable Gastric Banding System, a device implanted around the upper part of the stomach to limit the amount of food that can be eaten at one time.

The approval expands the use of the LAP-BAND to include obese individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 to 34 who also have an existing condition related to their obesity. BMI is a general measure of body fat based on an individual’s weight and height.

The FDA approved the LAP-BAND in 2001 for use in severely obese patients with a BMI of at least 40, those with a BMI of at least 35 and who also have an existing severe condition related to their obesity, such as heart disease or diabetes, or those who are at least 100 pounds overweight.

But not all LAP-BAND procedures are successful. A lawsuit seeks damages in the death of a 50-year-old California woman who died last July, five days after Lap Band surgery. Laura Faitro of Simi Valley died after undergoing surgery at Valley Surgical Center in West Hills, Calif.

She was the fourth Southern California patient to die following surgery related to the 1-800-GET-THIN advertising campaign, according to The Los Angeles Times.

The LAP-BAND is intended to be used for weight loss in adults who have not lost weight using non-surgical weight loss methods. The newly-approved indication is limited to patients with a BMI of 30 to 34 and at the highest risk of obesity-related complications. This represents a narrower indication than originally sought by Allergan. 

Public health concern

The company had also proposed to expand the indication to include people with a BMI of 35 to 39 and no obesity related condition. Patients using the LAP-BAND must be willing to make major changes to their lifestyle and eating habits.

Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States,” said William Maisel, M.D., M.P.H., deputy director for science at the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “A healthy lifestyle and weight loss are keys to improvements in health and a person’s overall quality of life.”

Use of the LAP-BAND in patients with BMIs between 30 and 40 was examined in a U.S. study. Results showed that 80 percent of patients lost at least 30 percent of their excess weight and kept it off for one year. Some patients in the study lost no weight, while others lost more than 80 percent of their extra weight.

Adverse reaction

In the same study, more than 70 percent of patients experienced an adverse event related to LAP-BAND, most often vomiting and difficulty swallowing. The events ranged from mild to severe but most were mild and resolved quickly.

Seven out of 149 patients needed other procedures after implantation: four to remove the LAP-BAND, two for port revisions, and one to reposition the LAP-BAND.

The LAP-BAND works by limiting the amount of food that can be eaten at one time and increasing the time it takes for food to be digested, to help people eat less. It is placed around the upper part of the stomach during a surgical procedure. The band creates a small stomach pouch that holds a small amount of food.

The LAP-BAND should not be used in certain people, for example, those who are poor candidates for surgery, have certain stomach or intestinal disorders or an infection, take aspirin frequently, or are addicted to alcohol and/or drugs. It should also not be used in those not able or willing to follow dietary and other recommendations.

The LAP-BAND is marketed by Allergan Inc., based in Goleta, Calif.

FDA Expands Use of Lap-Band for Weight Loss. Controversial procedure is not without adverse reactions, poor outcomes....

Despite Knowing Calories In Fast Food, Teens Still Eat Too Many

Study finds teens and young parents notice calories, but it doesn't sway choices

Any hope teens will self-police their fast food eating habits might be dashed with the results of a new study led by an NYU School of Medicine investigator that found labeling foods with their calorie content has little effect on the purchasing behavior of young people.

The study also revealed calorie labeling has little effect on what parents purchase for their children.

That’s not to say teens don’t notice calorie labeling on their favorite foods; they do. They just respond at a lower rate than adults.

Analyzing receipts

Brian Elbel, Ph.D., MPH, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Health Policy at the NYU School of Medicine and the NYU Wagner School of Public Service, along with his colleagues, gathered receipts and surveys from 427 parents and teenagers at fast-food restaurants both before and after mandatory labeling began in New York City in July 2008.

New York became the first city in the nation to enforce mandatory calorie labeling in fast-food restaurants throughout the five boroughs.

Elbel and his team focused on lower income communities in New York City and used Newark, New Jersey, (which did not have mandatory labeling) as a comparison city. Data were collected before labeling began, and one month after labels were present in restaurants.

As parents and teens were leaving fast-food restaurants, their receipts were collected and the foods they purchased were confirmed, along with a brief survey.

Do labels matter?

Before mandatory labeling began, none of the teens in the study said they noticed calorie information in the restaurant. After labeling began, 57 percent in New York and 18 percent in Newark said they noticed the calorie information.

A total of nine percent said the information influenced their choices, and all of the teens said they used the information to purchase fewer calories.

This number is considerably smaller than the percentage of adults who said the information influenced their choice (28 percent).

"While the same percentage of adolescents and adults noticed calorie information, fewer adolescents report actually using the information in their food choice," said Elbel.

However, noticing the posted calories didn’t sway patrons from purchasing high-calorie foods. Teens purchased about 725 calories and parents purchased about 600 calories for their children.

Additional findings

The study results revealed other significant findings.

The way food tastes was considered the most important reason why teens bought it, while price was a consideration for slightly over 50 percent.

Just over a quarter of the group said that they often or always limited the amount of food they ate in an effort to control their weight. The study also reported that most teenagers underestimated the amount of calories they had purchased, some by up to 466 calories.

These conclusions are similar to a previous study about adult eating behavior by Elbel and his colleagues, which showed that although labels did increase awareness of calories, they did not alter food choices.

Parental influence in food choice and childhood obesity is not well understood.

Almost 60 percent of parents said they decided what food their child ate. However, even with greater involvement from parents there was no evidence of less consumption of fast-food calories.

Obesity in the United States is an enormous public health problem and children and teenagers are increasingly becoming overweight or obese.

The case for labeling

Calorie labeling is the first significant policy effort to address obesity that has been implemented. Calorie menu labeling is now mandated to begin soon across the nation by the new health reform law called the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010" (ACA).

Among the claims supporting this policy is that menu labeling will help people make better informed and healthier food choices.

New York enforcing mandatory calorie labeling in fast-food restaurants throughout the five boroughs is the first attempt of its kind to influence the obesity epidemic by altering the environment in which individuals are actually making their food choices.

The goal is to encourage consumers to think twice before purchasing high calorie foods from restaurants, and to increase awareness of the calorie contents of the food they were purchasing.

In much the same way that adults responded in the few studies that have been conducted regarding this issue to date, the eating habits of children and teens in this study, a group of racial and ethnic minorities from low income areas, were barely influenced by the presence of calorie labeling.

Easy access and the convenience of restaurant locations were the greatest drivers for teens and then taste influenced where they chose to eat.

"It is important to further examine the influence of labeling, as it rolls out across the country as a result of the new federal law," said Elbel. "At the same time, it is important to understand that labeling is not likely to be enough to influence obesity in a large scale way. Other public policy approaches, as well as the efforts of food companies as other actors, will be needed."

The study was published in the February 15, 2011, Advance Online Publication, International Journal of Obesity. Additional investigators were Rogan Kersh, Ph.D., NYU Wagner School of Public Service and Joyce Gyamfi, MA, Program Manager at the NYU School of Medicine.

Despite Knowing Calories In Fast Food, Teens Still Eat Too ManyStudy finds teens and young parents notice calories, but it doesn't sway choices...

Does Childhood Obesity Start Before Mom Gets Pregnant?

Study finds women who lose weight before pregnancy have babies who benefit

Whether it’s a few pounds or 100, for health reasons or fashion, most women -- whether they’ll tell you or not -- want to lose weight.

And new research from the University of Texas focusing on obesity and pregnancy may give women another motivation to slim down: if mom is at a healthy weight when she gets pregnant, her unborn baby will reap the benefits.  

UT Health Science Center San Antonio obstetrics researchers were curious; if mothers lose body fat before pregnancy, does it improve the lifelong health of their children?

Since babies born to obese mothers tend to be predisposed to obesity themselves, answering this question could be one way to break the transgenerational cycle and help end the obesity epidemic.

Before or after

The study, a collaborative effort between researchers with the Center for Pregnancy and Newborn Research at the Health Science Center and the National Institute of Nutrition in Mexico City, studied how weight effects female rats before mating.

Two groups of female rats were fed a high-fat diet so they would become obese. One group was put on a diet a month before mating while the other group kept eating the same high-fat food during pregnancy and while nursing their offspring.

At weaning, the researchers found triglycerides, leptin, insulin and insulin resistance were elevated in the babies of the obese mothers. The babies born to obese mothers also had an increase in fat mass and fat cell size.

However, in the offspring of the dieting mothers, triglycerides, leptin, insulin and insulin resistance were at normal levels. Any fat mass and fat cell size increases were reversed in this group, too, thanks to the dietary intervention.

Developmental progrmming

The authors said this is the first study showing adverse metabolic effects on future offspring can be reversed or avoided by moms adopting healthy diets before getting pregnant.

"Developmental programming sets the scene that influences one's health for the rest of life," Dr. Nathanielsz said.

Some differences however, such as heart disease and obesity, may not appear until much later in life.

Nathanielsz said one of the most notable findings of this study was the offspring of the obese mothers had high levels of leptin, the hormone that signals to the brain to decrease appetite.

"This may mean they've developed a brain that is resistant to the signals that tell them they're getting fat, and they just go on eating and thus get fat as their mothers were. That is what we mean when we say that the effects are transgenerational.“

Nathanielsz adds the leptin levels in offspring of the diet-intervention mothers were normal, showing the cycle of obesity in families can be broken.

The experiment was novel in developmental programming -- the first time a research team intervened to recuperate some animals from high-fat diets. Still, Nathanielsz said more research needs to be done regarding diet and pregnancy.

"We were able to see at least a 50 percent to 60 percent return," said Nathanielsz. "This is a first step.”

Does Childhood Obesity Start Before Mom Gets Pregnant? Study finds women who lose weight before pregnancy have babies who benefit...

Chinese National Faces Sentencing in Counterfeit Diet Drug Case

Superslim, 2 Day Diet, Meitzitang were illegally marketed as dietary supplements

Shengyang Zhou, aka “Tom”, age 31, of Kunming, Yunnan, China, has entered a guilty plea to charges of trafficking in counterfeit versions of the pharmaceutical weight loss drug known as Alli. 

Zhou entered the plea before U.S. District Judge Philip B. Brimmer.  He is scheduled to be sentenced on May 6, 2011.  A co-defendant, Qingming Hu, age 61 of Plano, Texas, pled guilty to distributing Sibutramine, a Schedule IV non-narcotic controlled substance.  Hu is scheduled to be sentenced on April 28, 2011.

According to court documents, over the course of December 2008 through March of 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a series of alerts on its website concerning tainted weight loss pills and counterfeit drugs.  Initial alerts focused on “Superslim,” “2 Day Diet,” and Meitzitang, among other purported weight loss products believed to having been imported from China and being marketed as dietary supplements or nutritional products. 

The FDA warned in these initial alerts that the items posed a very serious health risk to consumers, because, based on analysis, they were found to be drugs that contained undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients, including Sibutramine (a non-narcotic controlled substance). 

The ingredient Sibutramine can cause high blood pressure, seizures, tachycardia, palpitations, heart attack or stroke.  In later alerts, FDA  warned the public about counterfeit versions of the brand name drug Alli, a popular over-the-counter weight loss drug manufactured by GlaxoSmithKlein. 

The alerts indicated that these counterfeit drugs were also being imported into the United States from China and did not contain the proper active pharmaceutical ingredient for the authentic product but instead contained dangerous levels of Sibutramine.

Sold online 

The counterfeit versions of Alli were being sold in the United States, among other ways, through internet websites, including online auction websites such as eBay.

During the course of the investigation, law enforcement agents identified Zhou as the trafficker and importer into the United States of these counterfeit and unapproved purported weight loss related drugs.  Zhou also identified himself as the manufacturer of the counterfeit Alli.

Zhou’s website,www.2daydietshopping.comindicated that his business operated a United States branch out of Plano, Texas.  Agents determined through investigation that the branch was operated  by Qing Ming Hu, a naturalized United States citizen born in China.  Some of the unapproved product featured in FDA public alerts was shipped to Hu for re-distribution to United States customers.

Undercover agents placed numerous orders for the counterfeit and illegal diet pills.  In turn, money was wired to bank accounts.  At one point, two agents flew to a third country in an undercover capacity to meet with Zhou. 

At that meeting they discussed in depth Zhou’s manufacturing capabilities.  Zhou identified himself as the manufacturer of the counterfeit Alli and promised to fix defects in the counterfeit versions of the Alli he had previously shipped, defects that had been noted by the FDA in its public alerts. 

During that meeting the undercover agents told Zhou that they had access to a private customs broker who would be willing to import the counterfeit Alli into the United States through air cargo shipments that would be mis-described. 

As the investigation continued undercover agents and Zhou agreed to meet in Hawaii to discuss increasing the order for counterfeit Alli.  At that meeting Zhou provided proof that he was capable of producing large quantities of Alli, and that he had cured certain imperfections.  At the end of the meeting agents handed Zhou cash to complete the Alli order transaction.  At that point, Zhou was arrested.

A number of consumers reported feeling an assortment of adverse physical effects from taking the counterfeit Alli that they had purchased from the defendant’s web page or through a re-distributor.  One consumer, an emergency room doctor, suffered a mild stroke after ingesting the counterfeit Alli.

Zhou faces a maximum penalty of ten years imprisonment, a $250,000 fine, and restitution for the counterfeit goods offense to which he has pled guilty.

Hu faces maximum penalty of five years imprisonment and a $250,000 fine for the distribution offense to which she has pled guilty.

Chinese National Faces Sentencing in Counterfeit Diet Drug Case. Superslim, 2 Day Diet, Meitzitang were illegally marketed as dietary supplements...

Could Better Classroom Interventions Curb Childhood Obesity?

Study finds current programs work, but could be better

As childhood obesity rates soar, initiatives in the classroom aimed at teaching nutrition and physical activity, like the First Lady’s “Let’s Move” campaign, become more prevalent. But are they working?

A new study of 26 school-based nutrition interventions in the United States and found while many of these programs are on the right track, there are some crucial pieces missing.

Investigators performed a content analysis of Kindergarten-through-12th grade school-based nutrition interventions which fit into the study's ten components proposed for developing future effective school-based nutrition interventions.

Findings from this study reveal that classroom nutrition education (85%) followed by parental involvement at home (62%) were the two intervention components used most often.

Less frequent components included establishment of foodservice guidelines (15%), community involvement (15%), inclusion of ethnic/cultural groups (15%), inclusion of incentives for schools (12%), and involvement of parents at school (8%).

This study documents that although many components of nutrition education have been successfully included in our children's school-based interventions, there are still some missing links.

"Schools continue to be an important location for childhood obesity prevention interventions. However, it is imperative that school-based interventions be developed and implemented to achieve maximum results,” said lead author Dr. Mary Roseman, who conducted this work while at the University of Kentucky and The University of Mississippi.

Limited research

According to Roseman, a periodic review of research on school-based nutrition interventions provides the opportunity to examine previous research and identify successful strategies and tactics for future studies that will lead to improved health outcomes in children.

Currently, there is limited research about the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions.

Roseman, along with co-authors Dr. Martha Riddell, Registered Dietitian and Professor of Public Health at University of Kentucky, and Jessica Niblock, Registered Dietitian with the Cincinnati Health Department feel this is an area of research that has to be investigated to ensure children are educated on how to be healthy, productive adults.

"With increased awareness, urgency, and funding to support nutrition interventions and research focusing on reversing the rising trend of overweight and obese children in the US, synthesizing findings from previous studies to inform research and program development, and identifying potentially high-impact strategies and tactics are warranted,” write the authors.

The researchers think the article emphasizes the importance of providing funding support so more researchers can access the effectiveness of nutrition education in the classroom, along with other links like cafeterias, homes, and communities.

The study appears in the January/February 2011 issue of the Journal of Nutrition Education.

Could Better Classroom Interventions Curb Childhood Obesity?Study finds current programs work, but could be better...

Cutting (Some) Carbs May Be Key To Weight Loss

Nutritionists blame government-mandated 'war on fat' for influx of unhealthy carbs in American diets

A growing number of top nutritional scientists are pointing to excessive carbohydrates, rather than fat, as the source of America's dietary woes.

As reported in the Los Angeles Times on December 20, some researchers are suggesting cutting carbohydrates is the key to reversing obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

Dietary fat has traditionally played the role of "public enemy No. 1" and consumption of carbohydrates has increased over the years with the help of a 30-year-old government-mandated message to cut fat.

Today individuals -- on average -- eat 250 to 300 grams of carbs a day, accounting for about 55 percent of their caloric intake; the most conservative recommendations say they should eat half that amount.

Differentiating carbs

But the answer may not be to cut all carbs completely. Some health experts are urging the public not to paint all carbohydrates with the same negative brush.

"You just cannot lump all carbs into a single category," said Tom Griesel, coauthor (along with his sister Dian) of the forthcoming book "TurboCharged," which outlines a new approach to reducing body fat as the key to weight loss.

According to Tom Griesel, carbs like fruits and vegetables are in a class by themselves."This is because they are truly unrefined and contain fiber along with a high moisture content in their raw or lightly cooked state, and contain many readily available and usable nutrients. Because of this, they do not have the same insulin effect of any other refined or 'complex' carb."

He says eliminating or reducing fruits and vegetables from the diet is always a mistake because then people tend to gravitate towards "inferior types of carbs."

Concentrated carbs

"Other types of carbs are the problem," said Dian Griesel, "and they are what should be eliminated or severely restricted in one's diet. Other than calories, they contain almost no nutritional value. This is why they are almost always fortified."

This group includes all sugar, particularly high fructose corn syrup; refined foods and drinks. Anything packaged, all grain products -- refined or unrefined -- can also be lumped in.

"All these are concentrated carbohydrates -- the most densely caloric of any 'foods' -- and even small quantities will cause blood sugar levels to rise to problematic levels and subsequently result in unhealthy insulin spikes," she said. "People do not realize that consuming even a small amount will have this effect."

Both authors note that our bodies cannot store much glycogen, and so this excess sugar is almost all stored as body fat. This happens even if we have way too much body fat already.


The presence of insulin makes fat burning -- using fat for energy -- impossible. So even small amounts of these "other carbs" at the very least keep people fat, and most likely fatter. Reducing the amount consumed is not the answer; eliminating them is.

"So we do not have a carbohydrate problem; we have a wrong kind of carbohydrate problem," Tom Griesel says. "This is a critical point to understand."

A separate problem, observes his sister, concerns the substitution of proteins and fats for the restricted or eliminated carbohydrates.

Although not as obvious, she says, too much protein is just as bad as not enough.

"You only need enough to take care of repair and maintenance of existing lean body mass (LBM) and possibly building new LBM," she said.

Protein problem

According to Dian Griesel, too much protein will either get used as fuel (although not efficiently) or get stored as fat. Plus, processing excess protein puts unnecessary stress on the body.

"There is an optimal amount of protein that is based on an individual's current LBM and activity levels which is generally about 10 percent of daily calories," she said.

The right fat

The Griesels say fat is the body's preferred energy source, drawn either from diet or available existing body fat. However, choosing the correct dietary fat is of utmost importance.

Most refined fats, vegetable oils, are problematic in anything other than small quantities.

Trans-fats, they say, are very bad and should be avoided entirely, because they cause major metabolic problems and may remain in the body for more than two years. Trans-fats are in almost all processed foods, including vegetable oils.

"The only healthy fats are the ones that come naturally in animal products like organic, wild or grass-fed meats; fish and eggs; and even dairy, along with nuts, olives, avocados," says Tom Griesel.

And as for oils, since there are no natural ones, they should be used sparingly as they are all refined.

When assessing the relative effects of fats vs. carbohydrates, it pays to carefully study what dietitians know about their effects on the body -- and choose our foods accordingly.

Cutting (Some) Carbs May Be Key To Weight Loss Nutritionists blame government-mandated "war on fat" for influx of unhealthy carbs in American diets...

Is Obesity Hardwired in Our Genes?

New study finds removal of feast-or-famine gene helps aid fat-burning capabilities

In addition to fast food, desk jobs and inertia, there is one more thing to blame for unwanted pounds -- our genes, which have apparently not caught on to the fact that we're no longer living in the Stone Age.

That is one conclusion drawn by researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, who recently showed that mice lacking a gene regulating energy balance are protected from weight gain, even on a high fat diet.

These findings have implications for the worldwide obesity epidemic and its consequences, such as type two diabetes.

In the December 16, 2010 issue of Nature, a team led by Marc Montminy, M.D., Ph.D, professor in the Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, reports that a gene known as CRTC3 decreases energy expenditure by fat cells.

"Ideas about obesity are based on concepts of feast or famine," said Montminy. "As humans, we developed ways of coping with famine by expressing genes like CRTC3 to slow the rate of fat burning. Individuals with these active 'thrifty genes' had an advantage -- they could survive long periods without food."

Back in the 1960's, scientists theorized humans had specialized genes that slowed our fat-burning capabilities. During prehistoric times, these genes were crucial to our survival, as we never knew when, or how much, we were going to eat on any given day.

Fast forward to 2010, when finding food has never been easier. We don't need those ancient genes anymore, but our bodies haven't gotten the memo.

Mouse diets

To analyze its role in fat metabolism, the researchers bred mice lacking the CRTC3 gene and put them on varying diets -- some moderate, some high fat.

Normal mice and the mice lacking the CRTC3 gene appeared similar when fed a moderate fat diet. But when fed the mouse version of the Philly cheese steak diet, only the normal mice became obese.

The mice lacking CFTC3 stayed slim and didn't gain weight.

"They also had about twice as many brown fat cells than did normal mice," said Montminy.

Our bodies also have two different types of fat cells -- white and brown; bad and good.

The white fat cells (also called WAT for "white adipose tissue”) serves as fat storage about bellies and hips -- that's the bad stuff.

However, the brown fat (BAT; "brown adipose tissue") is downright desirable.

"Brown fat is very different from white fat," says Youngsup Song, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in the Montminy lab and the study's first author.

According to Song, brown fat tissue burns fat that has accumulated in white fat tissue to generate heat as a way to maintain body temperature.

In fact, some evidence suggests that humans with a genetic propensity to leanness have more brown fat cells than do "ample" individuals.

As desirable as that trait may seem now, those folks likely struggled mightily to stay alive during the Paleolithic era.

Although the researchers found that CRTC3 loss also perturbs how all fat cells respond to brain signals controlling energy expenditure, they remain particularly intrigued by the brown fat connection.

"CRTC3 could be a switch controlling the number of brown fat cells, " says Montminy. "That is key, because if you could make more brown adipocytes, you could potentially control obesity."

What about humans?

This is all well and good for mice, but what about people?

To explore how relevant these studies are to humans, Montminy asked clinicians at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles to search databases of patient genetic information for a particularly interesting human CRTC3 gene mutation, which appeared to represent a more potent form of the normal gene.

Since mice lacking CRTC3 resist obesity, the researchers figured humans carrying a revved-up version of the gene might show the opposite tendency.

Indeed. genetic testing of two groups of Mexican-American patients revealed that individuals harboring the active CRTC3 mutation showed increased incidence of obesity.

"This is an example in which findings from rodent research led to a novel discovery in humans," says Mark Goodarzi, M.D., Ph.D., an endocrinologist at Cedars-Sinai and collaborator in the study. "Not all Mexican-American individuals with the variant will develop obesity, but those carrying it are at higher risk."

Interestingly, non-Hispanic Caucasians carrying the variant do not show increased obesity, a difference likely related to environmental or lifestyle factors.

Overall this study illustrates an important principle: that what is genetically advantageous in one cultural or historic context may not be in another.

In fact, Montminy does not view obesity as an aberration or a "disease."

"Storing fat in adipose tissue is a normal response. A lot people are obese but do not develop type 2 diabetes," he says, suggesting that genes like CRTC3 could serve as diagnostic tools as well as drug targets.

Is Obesity Hardwired in Our Genes? New study finds removal of feat-or-famine gene helps aid fat burning capabilities...

Obesity Groups Urge Sympathetic Hearing For Weight Loss Drug

Weigh drug risks against obesity risks, feds are told

The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Endocrime and Metabolic Advisory panel is meeting today to review a new obesity drug application, and obesity prevention advocates say they hope it gets a fair hearing.

The drug Contrave is under review today, after two other newly developed obesity treatments - Qnexa and Lorguess - were rejected in October, when the FDA cited safety issues. Also in October, the FDA asked for the removal of the previously approved weight-loss drug Meridia (sibutramine) from the market due to safety concerns.  

In the case of Qnexa, an FDA advisory panel recommended against its approval , citing potential side effects, such as increased heart rate, birth defects, and psychiatric problems. Those voting in favor of the drug said obesity itself was a greater health risk. The two obesity groups tend to reside in that camp.

"We are deeply concerned about the effect that the FDA's recent decisions will have for on-going and future research into desperately needed new obesity treatments,” said Jennifer Lovejoy, president of The Obesity Society. "As the FDA's advisors consider the application before them, we hope that the agency will assure a balanced process, taking into account the urgent medical need."

Lovejoy says a study published in the most recent New England Journal of Medicine provides a stark reminder that the obesity epidemic is a deadly disease.  In a study of mortality in 1.46 million people sponsored by the NIH, investigators reported that weight classifications "overweight" and "obesity" are associated with significant excess mortality.

"The time for action is now," said Joe Nadglowski, Obesity Action Coalition president and CEO. "The number of those affected by obesity is growing at an incredibly rapid rate and the millions of Americans already affected by the disease are lacking the necessary medically approved treatment and long-term options so desperately needed."

The two groups said the FDA and its advisors can play a proactive and constructive role to improve what they called "this extremely serious situation.”

An appeal to the FDA

"It is imperative that the FDA review any obesity treatment presented to them with the understanding that more than 93 million Americans are depending on them for help with this disease," said Lovejoy.

Drug companies have placed new emphasis on developing medications to promote weight control, as obesity has become a greater public health concern. The track record is not inspiring.

The last major weight control drug disaster was fen-phen, which was withdrawn from the market in 1997 after it was shown to cause heart valve damage. Onexa may have been rejected, in part, because it contains part of the fen-phen cocktail.

Contrave, meanwhile, is a combination of two approved drugs, bupropion and naltrexone. Individually, both drugs have shown some results in weight loss, according to researchers.
The Food and Drug Administration is deciding whether to approve Contrave, the latest drug developed to combat obesity....

BMI Might Be More Important Than Previously Thought

Where we fall on the Body Mass Index scale could determine when we die

BMI, or Body Mass Index, is a controversial method for measuring body fat, calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of his/her height in meters (kg/m2). Critics have stated it's inaccurate and possibly nothing to worry about.

But a new study looking at mortality from any cause found that healthy, non-smoking adults with a BMI between 20.0 and 24.9 -- the "healthy" range -- have the lowest risk of death.

Researchers were also able to provide precise estimates of the increased risk of death among people who are overweight and obese.

This is a first, considering previous studies examining the risks from being overweight were inconclusive, with some reporting only modestly increased risks of death and others showing a reduced risk. Also, the precise risks for different levels of obesity were uncertain.

Current guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organization define a normal BMI range as 18.5 to 24.9.

Overweight is defined as a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9; obesity is defined as a BMI over 30.0; and severe obesity is defined as BMI 35 or higher.

Obesity has emerged as a leading public health concern in the United States. It has been well-established that people who are obese face increased risks of death from heart disease, stroke, and certain cancers.

Currently, two-thirds of U.S. adults are overweight or obese. Seventeen percent of women and 11 percent of men are severely obese.

In this large analysis, investigators pooled data from 19 long-term studies designed to follow participants over time, from 5 to 28 years, depending on the study.

They found that healthy women who had never smoked and who were overweight were 13 percent more likely to die during the study follow-up period than those with a BMI between 22.5 and 24.9.

Women categorized as obese or severely obese had a dramatically higher risk of death. As compared with a BMI of 22.5 to 24.9, the researchers report a 44 percent increase in risk of death for participants with a BMI of 30.0 to 34.9; an 88 percent increase in risk for those with a BMI of 35.0 to 39.9; and a 2.5 times (250 percent) higher risk of death for participants whose BMI was 40.0 to 49.9.

Results were broadly similar for men. Overall for men and women combined, for every five unit increase in BMI, the researchers observed a 31 percent increase in risk of death.

"By combining data on nearly 1.5 million participants from 19 studies we were able to evaluate a wide range of BMI levels and other characteristics that may influence the relationship between excess weight and risk of death," said NCI's Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, D.Phil., lead author of the study.

"Smoking and pre-existing illness or disease are strongly associated with the risk of death and with obesity. A paramount aspect of the study was our ability to minimize the impact of these factors by excluding those participants from the analysis."

The investigators observed similar patterns of risk even after accounting for differences in alcohol consumption, physical activity, and education level.

The increased risk of death for a BMI of 25 or greater was also seen in all age groups, although it was more prominent for those who were overweight or obese before age 50.

The investigators gathered information about BMI and other characteristics from questionnaires participants completed at the beginning of each study.

Causes of death were obtained from death certificates or medical records.

This analysis was restricted to non-Hispanic whites aged 19 to 84. The investigators noted the relationship between BMI and mortality may differ across racial and ethnic groups. Other efforts are underway to study the effect of BMI on mortality in other racial and ethnic groups.

The research team included investigators from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, and collaborators from a dozen other major research institutions worldwide.

The results appear in the Dec. 2, 2010, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

BMI Might Be More Important Than Previously Thought Where we fall on the Body Mass Index scale could determine when we die...

You're Not Too Busy To Exercise During The Holidays

Adding a few extra steps to regularly scheduled holiday preparations can burn calories

Americans busy with holiday preparations may not even want to think about trying to go to the gym for the next couple months. But since the average person gains about 10 pounds between Halloween and New Year's, staying active is an important part of fighting off holiday bulge.

Experts at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center say by adding heart-pumping twists to tasks already on a holiday to-do list, men and women can get daily exercise throughout the holiday season

"It's important to maintain your fitness as much as possible during the holidays, but don't worry if you're too busy to go to the gym," says Karen Basen-Engquist, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Behavioral Science at MD Anderson.

"Many holiday activities offer ways to get the 30 minutes of daily moderate physical activity that your body needs to help fight off many forms of cancer and other diseases."

Exercising also helps the body burn off the mini candy bars, mashed potatoes, sugar cookies, and champagne Americans indulge in between October to January.

"You can break up your 30 minutes of daily exercise into three 10-minute or two 15 minute chunks as your schedule allows," said Basen-Engquist.

Here's how to turn exercise excuses into heart rate-boosting opportunities this holiday season.


Stop driving around in search of a parking space near the door. Park far from the entrance or, if you're taking the bus or train, get off a stop or two early. This way, you'll pack in some extra walking.

"For walking to count as exercise, you should be a little out of breath and feel your heart beating a little faster," Basen-Engquist says. "You should be able to talk in short sentences, but not sing holiday songs."

Once you're inside, opt for the stairs instead of the elevator or escalator and, if possible, carry your purchases instead of using a shopping cart. This will help get your heart pumping and strengthen your muscles.

Hosting guests?

Readying the house for guests -- and cleaning up after they leave -- is a great way to sneak in aerobic activity.

Basen-Engquist recommends focusing on activities that use large muscle groups, like the legs and back. This includes vacuuming, mopping, scrubbing, gardening and even taking multiple trips upstairs to put away laundry or holiday decorations.

"The most important thing is to get your heart rate up at a consistent level," Basen-Engquist says. "You should sustain the activity for at least 10 minutes without stopping."


Use these tips to speed up your heart rate when on the road:

Flying or taking the train or bus? While waiting to depart, take a brisk walk around the terminal -- and avoid moving sidewalks. When you arrive at your destination, make your walk to baggage claim or the exit a quick one.

Driving? Add physical activity to gas and bathroom breaks. Kick a soccer ball, throw a Frisbee or take a brisk walk.

Staying at a hotel or with friends or relatives? Many hotels offer gyms and even exercise classes. If that's not an option, maybe use an exercise DVD or check the TV for exercise shows. Or explore the area by taking a jog, walk or hike.

None of these work for you?

If you can't fit exercise into your holiday activities, try these tips:

  • Use your lunch break to jog or take a brisk walk.
  • Take the stairs at work.
  • Schedule workouts in advance.
  • Enlist a friend or partner to walk with you during the holidays. Buddying up provides motivation and gives you a chance to catch up and stay connected.
"Remember, it's hard to start exercising after you've gotten out of the habit,” Basen-Engquist says. "By making physical activity part of your holiday plans, you'll ensure you have the momentum to keep exercising in the New Year.”
You're Not Too Busy To Exercise During The Holidays Adding a few extra steps to regularly scheduled holiday preparations can burn calories...

Nutrition Basics Help Fight Child Obesity

Reading the label can go a long way toward making sure kids eat properly

With childhood obesity on the rise, parents, schools -- even whole communities -- are getting behind the movement to help young people eat healthier.

FDA nutrition expert Shirley Blakely, a registered dietitian and the mother of two grown kids, says healthy eating at home and school begins at the grocery store.

As you head down the supermarket aisle, Blakely says you should zero-in on two things:

  • the Nutrition Facts label -- tells the number of calories and percentage of a day's worth of nutrients in one serving
  • the ingredients on the label of all prepared foods -- lists every ingredient that went into the product, with the predominant ingredient first, the next most prominent second, and so on in descending order

Checking ingredients

Ingredients in prepared foods are listed in descending order of prominence. If the cereal your kids like has some type of grain listed first, that's a good sign. But if fructose, high fructose corn syrup, or sucrose -- in other words, sugar -- is listed first, you'd best leave that item on the store shelf because added sugars are taking the place of other, more nutritious ingredients.

And sugar isn't always an additive. Some foods -- fruits, for example -- are naturally sweet without adding any sugar at all. If you check the Nutrition Facts label on canned or dried fruits that have no added sugar, you'll still see sugars listed. That's because the sugars in pineapple, raisins, prunes, and other fruits occur naturally.

The same is true for fresh apples, bananas, melons, and other items on your grocer's produce aisle, but they don't carry labels because they're completely unprocessed. If you want to know how many calories or nutrients they have, you'll have to look on the Internet or ask in the produce section of your grocery store.

Read the label

Blakely also says parents and kids should pay attention to portion sizes. Her advice: put just one serving on each person's plate. And make sure everyone in the family knows how to use the Nutrition Facts label to guide their food choices. Blakely says there are three things everyone should check when they read the label:

  • Serving size -- one container isn't necessarily one serving; make sure you're eating only one serving by measuring your food and eating it from a plate or bowl instead of out of the container.
  • Percent Daily Value -- tells what percentage of the recommended daily amount of each nutrient is in one serving of a food. Based on the amount of each nutrient recommendation for one day, five percent or less is low; 20 percent or more is high.
  • Nutrients -- try to get 20 percent or more of protein, fiber, and some essential vitamins and minerals (such as vitamin C and calcium) in a single serving; but limit your intake of saturated fats and sodium to five percent or less per serving of food. Strive for 0 trans fat, or trans fatty acids -- this harmful fat raises your bad cholesterol (LDL) and lowers your good cholesterol (HDL).

Some big changes could be in store for the Nutritional Facts Label.'s Sara Huffman reported recently that the Institute of Medicine is recommending information that is more useful to food shoppers be placed more prominently on packages.

Nutrition Basics Help Fight Child ObesityReading the label can go a long way toward making sure kids eat properly...

Weight Loss Program? Don't Forget the Milk

Study participants who consumed the most milk lost the most weight

A new weight loss study conducted by researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) reveals that dieters who consumed milk or milk products lost more weight on average than those who consumed little to no milk products -- regardless of diet.

Researchers also found participants with the highest dairy calcium intake, equal to 12 oz. of milk or other dairy products (580 mg of dairy calcium), lost about 12 pounds (6 kg.) at the end of the two years.

By way of comparison, those with the lowest dairy calcium intake averaging about 150 mg dairy calcium, or about half of a glass, lost only seven pounds on average. The study was published in the current issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Beyond calcium, the researchers also found that blood levels of vitamin D independently affected weight loss success. Vitamin D levels increased among those who lost more weight. The dietary intervention study also confirmed other research that overweight participants have lower blood levels of vitamin D.

More than 300 overweight men and women, aged 40 to 65, took part in the study that evaluated low fat, Mediterranean or low-carb diets for two years. Dr. Danit Shahar, of BGU's S. Daniel Abraham Center for Health and Nutrition and the Faculty of Health Sciences, led the study, which was part of the Dietary Intervention Randomized Control Trial (DIRECT) conducted at the Nuclear Research Center in Israel.

The vitamin D factor

"It was known that overweight people had lower levels of serum vitamin D, but this is the first study that actually shows that serum Vitamin D increased among people who lost weight," according to Dr. Shahar. "This result lasted throughout the two years that the study was conducted, regardless of whether they were on a low-carb, low fat or Mediterranean diet."

Vitamin D increases calcium absorption in the bloodstream and in addition to sun exposure can be obtained from fortified milk, fatty fish and eggs. Americans generally consume less than the recommended daily requirement of Vitamin D, which is found in four glasses of milk (400 international units).

Read more about Weight Loss

Weight Loss Program? Don't Forget the Milk...

How to Control Food Cravings

New research suggests your imagination can be a powerful tool

May 21, 2010
Food cravings are the scourge of every dieter. When you fall below your normal caloric intake for the day, your body often cries out for something to eat - anything from pizza to peanut butter.

Why do we get intense desires to eat certain foods? Although food cravings are a common experience, researchers have only recently begun studying how food cravings emerge.

Psychological scientists Eva Kemps and Marika Tiggemann of Flinders University, Australia, review the latest research on food cravings and how they may be controlled in the current issue of Current Directions in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

We've all experienced hunger, where eating anything will suffice, but what makes food cravings different from hunger is how specific they are. We don't just want to eat something; instead, we want barbecue potato chips or cookie dough ice cream.

Many people experience food cravings from time to time, but for certain individuals, these cravings can pose serious health risks, researchers warn. For example, food cravings have been shown to elicit binge-eating episodes, which can lead to obesity and eating disorders. In addition, giving in to food cravings can trigger feelings of guilt and shame.

Where do food cravings come from?

Many research studies suggest that mental imagery may be a key component of food cravings - when people crave a specific food, they have vivid images of that food. Results of one study showed that the strength of participants' cravings was linked to how vividly they imagined the food.

Mental imagery takes up cognitive resources, or brain power. Studies have shown that when subjects are imagining something, they have a hard time completing various cognitive tasks.

In one experiment, volunteers who were craving chocolate recalled fewer words and took longer to solve math problems than volunteers who were not craving chocolate. These links between food cravings and mental imagery, along with the findings that mental imagery takes up cognitive resources, may help to explain why food cravings can be so disruptive: As we are imagining a specific food, much of our brain power is focused on that food, and we have a hard time with other tasks.

Use your imagination

How do you get these powerful cravings under control? New research findings suggest that that this relationship may work in the opposite direction as well. It may be possible to use cognitive tasks to reduce food cravings.

The results of one experiment revealed that volunteers who had been craving a food reported reduced food cravings after they formed images of common sights. For example, they were asked to imagine the appearance of a rainbow. Even imagining different smells seemed to work.

In another experiment, volunteers who were craving a food watched a flickering pattern of black and white dots on a monitor, similar to an untuned television set. After viewing the pattern, they reported a decrease in the vividness of their craved-food images as well as a reduction in their cravings.

According the researchers, these findings indicate that "engaging in a simple visual task seems to hold real promise as a method for curbing food cravings."

The authors suggest that "real-world implementations could incorporate the dynamic visual noise display into existing accessible technologies, such as the smart phone and other mobile, hand-held computing devices." They conclude that these experimental approaches may extend beyond food cravings and have implications for reducing cravings of other substances such as drugs and alcohol.

When you fall below your normal caloric intake for the day, your body often cries out for something to eat - anything from pizza to peanut butter....

White House Wants Fewer Food Ads Directed At Kids

Task force says one in three children obese or overweight

May 12, 2010

A White House report on childhood obesity calls the condition an "epidemic" and a "national health crises," saying one of every three children is overweight or obese.

The Task Force on Childhood Obesity, which issued the report, is a key part of First Lady Michelle Obama's campaign to reduce the problem of obesity in America.

"We have a roadmap for implementing our plan across our government and across the country," Michelle Obama told reporters Tuesday.

The White House said the campaign would rely on persuasion and education rather than new federal laws. That said, the task force said food marketers -- especially food targeted at children -- should reduce their advertising. It said cartoon characters should only be used to promote healthy foods.

The report includes a total of 70 recommendations for specific action steps, many of which can be implemented right away and are minimal or no-cost.

"By looking across both the private and public sector and various government entities, these recommendations articulate a comprehensive approach to combating childhood obesity," said Jeffrey Levi, Ph.D., Executive Director of Trust for America's Health. "The Childhood Obesity Task Force should be commended for setting such specific goals that will help direct the action needed to address this national epidemic."

Looking for action

But Levi suggests more than persuasion is needed.

"It is now the responsibility of the administration and Congress to ensure that sufficient resources are provided so that each recommendation can be realized," he said. "Each agency must develop implementation plans for those recommendations for which it is responsible."

Among the recommendations for federal action are:

• Increase resources for school meals.

• A multi-year Healthy Food Financing Initiative should be created to leverage private funds to address the problem of food deserts.

• The FDA and USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service should collaborate with the food and beverage industry to develop and implement a standard system of nutritional labeling for the front of packages.

• If voluntary efforts to limit marketing of less healthy foods and beverages to kids do not achieve substantial success, the Federal Communications Commission should consider new rules regarding commercials during children's programming.

• Federal policies should promote more physical activity by updating the President's Challenge, reauthorizing the Surface Transportation Act to enhance livability and physical activity, having the EPA assist school districts with setting guidelines for new schools to consider promotion of physical activity, and enhancement of the Federal Safe Routes to Schools Program.

• The Federal government should provide guidance on how to increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and reduce screen time in early child care settings.

White House Wants Fewer Food Ads Directed At Kids...

FDA Warns Consumers about Lipodissolve Claims

Can a series of drug injections make fat go away for good?

It sounds good: Get a series of drug injections and see pockets of fat on your body go away for good. But the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is alerting consumers about false and misleading claims being made about products used in lipodissolve.

Recipients of lipodissolve get a series of drug injections intended to dissolve and permanently remove small pockets of fat from various parts of the body. The process is also known as injection lipolysis, lipozap, lipotherapy, and mesotherapy.

We are concerned that these companies are misleading consumers, says Janet Woodcock, M.D., director of FDAs Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. It is important for anyone who is considering this voluntary procedure to understand that the products used to perform lipodissolve procedures are not approved by FDA for fat removal.

The drugs most regularly used in the lipodissolve injection regimen are phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate (commonly called PC and DC, respectively). Other ingredients may also be used, including drugs or components of other products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal extracts.

FDA is alerting consumers that:

• it has not evaluated or approved products for use in lipodissolve;
• it is not aware of evidence supporting the effectiveness of the substances used in lipodissolve for fat elimination;
• the safety of these substances, when used alone or in combination, is unknown; and
• it is not aware of clinical studies to support medical uses of lipodissolve.

In addition, FDA has reports of unexpected side effects in people whove undergone the lipodissolve procedure. These side effects include:

• permanent scarring;
• skin deformation; and
• deep, painful knots under the skin in areas where the lipodissolve treatments were injected

FDA actions

On April 7, 2010, FDA announced it had sent warning letters to six medical spas in the United States -- and a cyber letter to a company in Brazil -- for making false or misleading statements on their Web sites about drugs used in the procedure, or for otherwise misbranding lipodissolve products.

The U.S. medical spas receiving warning letters make various unsupported claims about lipodissolve, such as assertions that the products used in lipodissolve

• are safe and effective;
• have an outstanding safety record; and
• are superior to other fat-loss procedures, including liposuction.

Additionally some of the letters indicate that the companies have made claims that lipodissolve can be used to treat certain medical conditions, such as male breast enlargement, benign fatty growths known as lipomas, excess fat deposits and surgical deformities.

The U.S. companies receiving warning letters in regard to lipodissolve products are

• Monarch Med Spa, King of Prussia, Pa.;
• Spa 35, Boise, Idaho;
• Medical Cosmetic Enhancements, Chevy Chase, Md.
• Innovative Directions in Health, Edina, Minn.
• PURE Med Spa, Boca Raton, Fla.
• All About You Med Spa, Madison, Ind.

FDA is requesting a written response from these U.S. companies within 15 business days of receipt of the letters stating how they will correct these violations and prevent similar violations in the future. These firms were told that failure to promptly correct the violations may result in legal action.

The Brazilian firm getting a warning letter markets lipodissolve products on two Web sites: and FDA will notify regulatory authorities in Brazil of this action. The agency has issued an import alert against the and entities to prevent the importation and distribution of unapproved lipodissolve drug products into the United States.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is alerting consumers about false and misleading claims being made about products used in lipodissolve....

Survey: More Consumers Using Food Label Info

Diet-heart disease link starting to sink in

The idea of checking the nutritional information on food labels finally seems to be catching on in the U.S.

According to the latest Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Health and Diet Survey, more than half of consumers often read the food label when buying a product for the first time. These consumers are also increasingly aware of the link between diet and heart disease.

In its 2008 telephone survey, the tenth since 1982, FDA interviewed more than 2,500 adults in every state and the District of Columbia. The most recent previous surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2004.

Linking diet and heart disease

Among the highlights of survey findings in regard to how diet affects health:

• More U.S. consumers know of the relationship between diet and heart disease. Ninety-one percent knew of this link, an 8 percent jump from 2002. In addition, 62 percent of consumers mentioned fats as a factor related to heart disease, compared with 53 percent in 2002.

• Eighty-one percent of consumers know that certain foods or drinks may help prevent heart disease or heart attacks. This result showed no change from 2002. While fruits and vegetables were most frequently linked with reducing heart disease, fewer people made this link in 2008 than in 2002.

• Consumers' awareness that trans fats in the diet may raise the risk of heart disease nearly doubled over just four years, from 32 percent in 2004 to 62 percent.

• Correct identification that omega 3 fatty acids may lower the risk of heart disease increased, from 31 percent in 2004 to 52 percent in 2008.

• Knowledge that saturated fat may raise the risk of heart disease was stable: it was 74 percent in 2004 and 73 percent in 2008.

Evidence of the link between eating habits and heart disease has been around for a long time.

Food label highlights

Findings in regard to food labels include:

• More than half (54 percent) of consumers said they read a product's label the first time they buy the product. That's a ten percent increase from 2002.

• Among those who in 2008 reported they read the nutrition label the first time they buy a product:

• Two-thirds use the label "often" to check how high or low a food is in calories and in substances such as salt, vitamins, and fat

• 55 percent "often" use the label to get a general idea of the food's nutritional content

• 46 percent "often" use the calorie information on the label. Thirty-four percent rarely or never use the calorie information

• Thirty-eight percent of consumers said they use nutrient content claims (such as "low fat," "high fiber," and "cholesterol-free") "often"; 34 percent answered "sometimes."

• When asked if they refer to the label claim of "0 grams of trans fat," 31 percent said "often" and 36 percent said "sometimes."

The survey found differing degrees of trust about claims found on food labels. For example, 41 percent of consumers believe that all or most of claims such as "low fat," "high fiber," or "cholesterol free" are accurate, while 56 percent believe that some or none of them are accurate. Also, 64 percent of consumers reported seeing nutrition labeling on menus, napkins, or place mats in restaurants. About half of these consumers use this information often or sometimes. With more consumers using the information, there are calls to make nutrition labels more user-friendly.

Eating habits

The survey also examined eating habits. Among findings in that category were that 54 percent of consumers reported eating breakfast seven days a week, while eight percent said they skip the meal every day. In contrast, 86 percent said they eat dinner seven days a week, while one percent said they always skip it.

FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition has posted findings from the survey, as well as a related fact sheet, on its Web site.

According to the latest FDA Health and Diet Survey, more than half of consumers often read the food label when buying a product for the first time....

Stroke Incidence Rising Among Younger Adults

Seniors suffering fewer strokes

Strokes are not just an affliction of people who are older.

Data from Ohio and Kentucky presented at the American Stroke Association's International Stroke Conference 2010 show more young people are having strokes while older people are having fewer.

The average age of stroke patients in 2005 was nearly three years younger than it was in 1993 -- a significant decrease, researchers said. Moreover, the percentage of people 20 to 45 having a stroke was up to 7.3 percent in 2005 from 4.5 percent in 1993.

"This is scary and very concerning," said Brett M. Kissela, M.D., the study's lead author and Associate Professor, Co-Director of the Neurology Residency Program, and Vice-Chair of Education and Clinical Services at the University of Cincinnati Neuroscience Institute. "What was shocking was the proportion of patients under age 45. The proportion is up, the incidence rate is up."

Stroke has traditionally been considered a disease of old age, so the findings are of great public health significance because of the potential for greater lifetime burden of disability among younger patients.

Researchers examined data from the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region, which includes about 1.3 million people. But Kissela said the trend noted is likely occurring throughout the nation because the higher prevalence of risk factors such as obesity and diabetes seen in the young here are also seen throughout the country.

They recorded the age of people hospitalized for their first-ever stroke from the summer of 1993 to the summer of 1994, then compared it with calendar years 1999 and 2005.

In 1993, the average age of first stroke was 71.3 years. The average age dropped to 70.9 in 1999 and was down to 68.4 by 2005.

Researchers also found racial differences in stroke incidence. For blacks, the incidence of strokes among those over age 85 dropped significantly by 2005. For whites, the incidence decreased significantly starting at age 65 by 2005.

In both races, the incidence rates for strokes in 20 to 45 year olds increased, although the increase was only statistically significant among whites, doubling from 12 per 100,000 people to 25 per 100,000.

Kissela said it's hard to know with certainty what is driving this change, but speculated the increased prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and obesity is a major contributor.

"As physicians, we need to look for these potent risk factors even in young people," he said. "Stroke is a life-changing, devastating disease. It can affect young people, and we hope these data will serve as a wake-up call.

Kissela's study complements research showing more children are becoming stroke patients.

Stroke Incidence Rising Among Younger Adults...

Two Hydroxycut Class Actions Filed

Suits follow recall of liver-damaging dietary supplement

Two class action lawsuits have been filed in the wake of the recall of Hydroxycut, a popular weight-loss supplement that has been linked to liver damage and other life-threatening side effects.

The suits, filed in Canada and Tennessee, accuse Iovate Health Sciences, which manufactures Hydroxycut, of failing to warn of the drug's dangers or take proper precautions to protect its users.

Hydroxycut was voluntarily recalled on May 1 after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) identified numerous health risks posed by the drug. The Administration received 23 complaints of liver damage resulting from use of the product, ranging from jaundice to the need for a transplant. A 19-year-old man died in March 2007 from liver failure apparently caused by Hydroxycut; amazingly, the death was not reported to the FDA until March of this year.

The drug poses other serious risks, including heart failure, seizures, and rhabdomyolysis, a muscle condition where muscle fibers break down to the point that they are released into the bloodstream. In some serious cases, this condition can lead to kidney failure.

The Canadian suit, filed on May 4, defines a class of any Canadian who purchased Hydroxycut after May 1, 2003. The suit alleges that Iovate failed to warn on the label of Hydroxycut's possibly serious side effects. The suit seeks $20 million plus punitive damages.

The Tennessee suit, filed on May 20 in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee, defines a class of anyone who purchased a Hydroxycut product. The lead plaintiffs, all from Tennessee, spent varying amounts of money on Hydroxycut products before the recall was announced. The suit alleges counts under negligence, breach of express and implied warranties, fraud, failure to warn, unjust enrichment and violations of the Tennessee Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, among others.

The plaintiffs in the Tennessee action experienced a number of symptoms as a result of taking the drug, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headaches, and extreme fatigue.

Very popular

The extremely popular drug currently accounts for 90% of weight-loss supplement sales. In 2008, Iovate sold more than 9 million units of the drug.

The FDA's advisory states that, Although the liver damage appears to be relatively rare, FDA believes consumers should not be exposed to unnecessary risk. Shortly after the statement was released, Iovate voluntarily recalled the drug from the market.

The FDA said that, while liver damage is rare, those affected did not exceed the recommended dosage of the drug. The Administration has yet to determine why the drug causes such damage.

The Los Angeles Times reported this week that an Army radio operator had to be medically discharged after suffering from a serious case of rhabdomyolysis, most likely as a result of using Hydroxycut during a three-month period in 2007. Robert Tropea suffered from serious muscle aches and had black urine. Moreover, tests showed extremely serious organ and muscle damage.

Tropea conceded to the Times that he didn't recognize a lot of the ingredients listed on the supplement's label. But they were selling it as something safe, and I took what they said and ran with it, he said.

The recall points to the serious problems with oversight of over-the-counter dietary supplements. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which took effect in 1994, it is the manufacturer's responsibility to ensure that a given drug is safe for consumer consumption. While the company is technically required to rely on adequate evidence in reaching this conclusion, they do not have to provide this evidence to the FDA unless the drug contains an entirely new dietary ingredient. Whether the Hydroxycut controversy will change this shoddy procedure remains to be seen.

A statement on the website explains that, While this is a small number of reports relative to the many millions of people who have used Hydroxycut products over the years, out of an abundance of caution and because consumer safety is our top priority, we are voluntarily recalling these Hydroxycut-branded products.

Recalled products

The list of products being recalled by Iovate currently includes:

• Hydroxycut Regular Rapid Release Caplets
• Hydroxycut Caffeine-Free Rapid Release Caplets
• Hydroxycut Hardcore Liquid Caplets
• Hydroxycut Max Liquid Caplets
• Hydroxycut Regular Drink Packets
• Hydroxycut Caffeine-Free Drink Packets
• Hydroxycut Hardcore Drink Packets (Ignition Stix)
• Hydroxycut Max Drink Packets
• Hydroxycut Liquid Shots
• Hydroxycut Hardcore RTDs (Ready-to-Drink)
• Hydroxycut Max Aqua Shed
• Hydroxycut 24
• Hydroxycut Carb Control
• Hydroxycut Natural

The FDA has not yet determined which ingredients, dosages, or other health-related factors may be associated with risks related to these Hydroxycut products. The products contain a variety of ingredients and herbal extracts.

Lawsuits have been filed in the wake of the recall of Hydroxycut, a popular weight-loss supplement that has been linked to liver damage and other life-thre...

Eating Healthy Costs More

New study draws links between nutrition and economic status

As health experts grapple with rising obesity, the food American consumers eat gets a lot of the blame; things like pizza, burgers and fries, and sugary soft drinks. But there could be an economic reason so many people tend to over-consume unhealthy food. It costs less than food that's good for you.

In a study published in the May 2009 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, researchers from the University of Washington compared the eating habits and food costs of a sample of 164 adults in the Seattle, Washington area.

The energy density of the diet — that is, the available energy per unit weight — is one indicator of diet quality. Lean meats, fish, low-fat dairy products and fresh vegetables and fruit provide fewer calories per unit weight than do fast foods, sweets, candy and desserts. Energy dense foods provide more calories per unit weight but tend to be nutrient-poor.

Diets of low energy density and high nutrient content have been associated with less weight gain and with lower rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. In other words, they're considered "healthy food.

In contrast, energy-dense diets have been linked to higher obesity rates and higher disease risk. Improving diet quality by lowering its energy density is standard advice for weight control, cancer prevention and better health, the researchers say.

The 164 participants — 103 women and 61 men — recorded their usual frequency of consumption of 152 foods and 22 beverages and indicated portion size. They also provided four-day dietary records and completed demographic and behavioral questionnaires.

For both men and women, higher dietary energy density was associated with higher intakes of total fat and saturated fat and with lower intakes of dietary fiber, potassium and vitamins A and C. Daily diet cost was slightly higher for men ($6.72/day) than women ($6.21/day), reflecting the fact that men ate more than women.

However, the difference reversed after adjusting for energy. For each 2,000 kcal of dietary energy, men spent $7.43 compared to $8.12 spent by women. Diets that were more costly in terms of calorie dollars per day were also lower in energy density and contained higher levels of nutrients.

Higher quality diets were not only more costly but were associated with higher household incomes and education of study participants. Education, rather than incomes was the dominant factor. More highly educated respondents reported higher quality and therefore more costly diets, independent of household income level.

Writing in the article, Pablo Monsivais, PhD MPH, and Adam Drewnowski, PhD, both of the University of Washington, Seattle, conclude, "The finding that higher-quality diets were consumed by women of higher socioeconomic status and more costly per calorie has implications for epidemiologic studies of diet and chronic disease."

For the first time, researchers say, they have linked nutritional status to socioeconomic status. They say the findings theyve reported raise the possibility that the higher monetary cost of nutritious diets may provide one explanation for those with more education and more income eating healthier diets.

Eating Healthy Costs More...

FDA Warns Consumers to Stop Using Hydroxycut Weight-LossProducts

Dietary supplements linked to one death; risk of liver injury

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is warning consumers to immediately stop using Hydroxycut products after learning of a number of serious liver injuries. Iovate Health Sciences, the manufacturer, has agreed to recall Hydroxycut products from the market.

The FDA has received 23 reports of serious health problems ranging from jaundice and elevated liver enzymes, an indicator of potential liver injury, to liver damage requiring liver transplant. One death due to liver failure has been reported to the FDA. Other health problems reported include seizures; cardiovascular disorders; and rhabdomyolysis, a type of muscle damage that can lead to other serious health problems such as kidney failure.

Liver injury, although rare, was reported by patients at the doses of Hydroxycut recommended on the bottle. Symptoms of liver injury include jaundice (yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes) and brown urine. Other symptoms include nausea, vomiting, light-colored stools, excessive fatigue, weakness, stomach or abdominal pain, itching, and loss of appetite.

The FDA urges consumers to discontinue use of Hydroxycut products in order to avoid any undue risk. Adverse events are rare, but exist. Consumers should consult a physician or other health care professional if they are experiencing symptoms possibly associated with these products, said Linda Katz, M.D., interim chief medical officer of the FDAs Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

Hydroxycut products are dietary supplements that are marketed for weight-loss, as fat burners, as energy-enhancers, as low carb diet aids, and for water loss under the Iovate and MuscleTech brand names. The list of products being recalled by Iovate currently includes:

• Hydroxycut Regular Rapid Release Caplets
• Hydroxycut Caffeine-Free Rapid Release Caplets
• Hydroxycut Hardcore Liquid Caplets
• Hydroxycut Max Liquid Caplets
• Hydroxycut Regular Drink Packets
• Hydroxycut Caffeine-Free Drink Packets
• Hydroxycut Hardcore Drink Packets (Ignition Stix)
• Hydroxycut Max Drink Packets
• Hydroxycut Liquid Shots
• Hydroxycut Hardcore RTDs (Ready-to-Drink)
• Hydroxycut Max Aqua Shed
• Hydroxycut 24
• Hydroxycut Carb Control
• Hydroxycut Natural

Although the FDA has not received reports of serious liver-related adverse reactions for all Hydroxycut products, Iovate has agreed to recall all the products listed above. Hydroxycut Cleanse and Hoodia products are not affected by the recall. Consumers who have any of the products involved in the recall are advised to stop using them and to return them to the place of purchase.

The agency has not yet determined which ingredients, dosages, or other health-related factors may be associated with risks related to these Hydroxycut products. The products contain a variety of ingredients and herbal extracts.

FDA Warns Consumers to Stop Using Hydroxycut Weight-LossProducts...

Some Efforts To Control Eating May Backfire

Addition of healthy options to menu spurs unhealthy eating

More restaurants and vending machines offer healthy choices these days, so why do Americans' waistlines continue to expand? A new study in the Journal of Consumer Research shows that some efforts to control eating may backfire.

Consumers may feel they have fulfilled a healthy eating goal even if they choose an unhealthy food, and the presence of a healthy option among food choices may draw their attention to the least-healthy choice available, according to authors Keith Wilcox and Lauren Block of City University of New York, Beth Vallen of Loyola College, and Gavan J. Fitzsimons of Duke University.

"Just because we consumers want to see healthier items available does not mean that we are going to choose them," write the authors. "We present evidence that for many consumers, the addition of healthy alternatives to food choice sets can, ironically, increase the consumption of very indulgent food items."

In a series of four studies, the researchers examined how consumers' food choices differed when a healthy item was included in a set compared to when it was not available. The study results showed that the mere presence of a healthy item vicariously fulfills health-related eating goals, drives attention to the least-healthy choice, and provides people with license to indulge in tempting foods. They also demonstrated that these effects were more pronounced in people with relatively high levels of self-control.

In one study, participants chose from a menu that included French fries, chicken nuggets, and a baked potato or these items plus a side salad. After being told that each item cost the same amount of money, respondents were instructed to choose a side dish for their lunch.

"As we predicted, when given the choice of fries, chicken nuggets, or a baked potato, people high in self-control rarely chose the fries, which are considered the least-healthy option in the set. However, add the salad to the set and what happens? High self-control individuals were significantly more likely to choose the French fries."

The authors found the opposite was true for people with low self-control.

Some Efforts To Control Eating May Backfire...

Fructose Sets Table For Obesity, Study Suggests

Combination with bad diet can easily lead to weight gain

A new study may shed light on why Americans have started packing on the pounds over the last two decades. A study funded by the National Institutes of Health suggests eating too much fructose can induce leptin resistance, a condition that can easily lead to becoming overweight when combined with a high-fat, high-calorie diet.

Fructose, often made from corn syrup, has become a favorite food industry sweetener for processed foods because it is cheaper than sugar.

Although previous studies have shown that being leptin resistant can lead to rapid weight gain on a high-fat, high-caloric diet, this is the first study to show that leptin resistance can develop as a result of high fructose consumption. The study also showed for the first time that leptin resistance can develop silently, that is, with little indication that it is happening.

The study, "Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding," was carried out by Alexandra Shapiro, Wei Mu, Carlos Roncal, Kit-Yan Cheng, Richard J. Johnson and Philip J. Scarpace, all at the University of Florida College of Medicine in Gainesville. The study appears in the American Journal of Physiology--Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, published by The American Physiological Society. The study suggests fructose can promote weight gain beyond its coloric content. If it can change the function of a regulator like leptin, then other high calorie foods may have greater impact of weight gain than they would otherwise.

Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in helping the body to balance food intake with energy expenditure. When leptin isn't working--that is, when the body no longer responds to the leptin it produces--it's called leptin resistance. Leptin resistance is associated with weight gain and obesity in the face of a high-fat, high-calorie diet.

Obesity has been a growing problem in the U.S. and in other parts of the world and fructose has been suspected of playing a role. Fructose is the sugar found in fruit, but it's not the normal consumption of fruit that is the problem. Table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup are about 50% fructose and these ingredients have become increasingly common in many foods and beverages. With sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being added to many foods, people now eat much more fructose than ever before.

The University of Florida researchers hypothesized that a high-fructose diet could lead to leptin resistance, which in turn could lead to exacerbated weight gain in the face of a high-fat, high-calorie diet, a typical diet in industrialized countries. To test their hypothesis, the research team performed a study with two groups of rats. They fed both groups the same diet, with one important exception: one group consumed a lot of fructose while the other received no fructose.

During these six months, there were no differences in food intake, body weight, and body fat between rats on the high-fructose and the rats on the fructose-free diets. In addition, there was no difference between the two groups in the levels of leptin, glucose, cholesterol or insulin found in their blood. There was only one difference at the end of the six months: The rats on the high-fructose diet had higher levels of triglycerides in their blood.

The researchers next tested the animals to see if they were leptin resistant. They injected all the animals with leptin, to see if they would respond by eating less. Animals whose leptin response is functioning normally will lower their food intake. The researchers discovered that the rats on the high-fructose diet were leptin resistant, that is, they did not lower their food intake when given leptin. The no-fructose animals responded normally to leptin by eating less.

This first six months of the study showed that leptin resistance can develop silently. "Usually, leptin resistance is associated with obesity, but in this case, leptin resistance developed without obesity," Shapiro said. "This was very surprising."

Having seen that leptin resistance could develop silently, the researchers next wanted to find out what would happen if they switched the rats to a high-fat, high-calorie diet -- the kind many Americans eat. They found that the animals exposed to the high-fructose diet, the leptin resistant rats, ate more and gained much more weight and fat than the leptin responsive animals on the fructose-free diet. All told, this study showed that leptin resistance can:

• develop by eating a lot of fructose

• develop silently, that is, with very little indication it is happening

• result in weight gain when paired with a high fat, calorie dense diet

Scarpace said the study suggests it is the interaction between consumption of large amounts of fructose-containing foods and eating a high-fat, high-calorie diet that produces the weight gain. "This study may explain how the global increase in fructose consumption is related to the current obesity epidemic," Shapiro said.

Other studies have shown that elevated triglycerides impair the transport of leptin across the blood brain barrier. The researchers hypothesize that the elevation in triglycerides produced by fructose prevented leptin from reaching the brain. If leptin does not reach the brain, the brain will not send out the signal to stop eating.

"The presence of high fructose alters the way leptin works, fooling the brain so that it ignores leptin," Scarpace said. Consumers should be cautious about what they eat, checking labels to see how much sugar the items contain, Shapiro said.

The researchers hope to perform future studies to find out if leptin resistance can be reversed by removing or reducing the fructose content of the diet.

Fructose Sets Table For Obesity, Study Suggests: A new study may shed light on why Americans have started packing on the pounds over the last two decades....

Study: 86 Percent of Americans Could Be Obese by 2030

More exercise recommended for weight loss

Most adults in the U.S. will be overweight or obese by 2030, with related health care spending projected to be as much as $956.9 billion, according to researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

Their results are published in the July 2008 online issue of Obesity.

"National survey data show that the prevalence of overweight and obese adults in the U.S. has increased steadily over the past three decades," said Youfa Wang, MD, PhD, lead author of the study and associate professor with the Bloomberg School's Center for Human Nutrition.

"If these trends continue, more than 86 percent of adults will be overweight or obese by 2030 with approximately 96 percent of non-Hispanic black women and 91 percent of Mexican-American men affected. This would result in 1 of every 6 health care dollars spent in total direct health care costs paying for overweight and obesity-related costs," Wang added.

The researchers conducted projection analyses based on data collected over the past three decades from nationally representative surveys. Their projections illustrate the potential burden of the U.S. obesity epidemic if current trends continue.

"Our analysis also shows that over time heavy Americans become heavier," according to May A. Beydoun, a former postdoctoral research fellow at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

"The health care costs attributable to obesity and overweight are expected to more than double every decade. This would account for 15 to 17 percent of total health care costs spent," Wang said. "Due to the assumptions we made and the limitations of the available data, these figures are likely an underestimation of the true financial impact."

Current standards define adults with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 29.9 as overweight and adults with a BMI of 30 or higher as obese. Both the overweight and obese are at an increased risk for developing a number of health conditions, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Researchers estimate that children and young adults may have a shorter life expectancy than their parents if the obesity epidemic is left unaddressed.

The authors warned that obesity has become a public health crisis in the U.S. Timely, dramatic and effective development and implementation of corrective programs and policies are needed to avoid the otherwise inevitable health and societal consequences implied by their projections.

If current trends continue, the researchers warn that the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services will not meet its Healthy People 2010 initiative to increase the proportion of adults who are at a healthy weight and to reduce the proportion of adults who are obese.

More exercise recommended for weight loss

In addition to limiting calories, overweight and obese women may need to exercise 55 minutes a day for five days per week to sustain a weight loss of 10 percent over two years. That's the conclusion of researchers writing in the latest issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

More than 65 percent of U.S. adults are overweight, a public health concern, according to background information in the article.

"Among obese adults, long-term weight loss and prevention of weight regain have been less than desired," the authors write. "Therefore, there is a need for more effective interventions."

Current recommendations prescribe 30 minutes of moderate physical activity on most days of the week, for a total of 150 minutes per week. However, a growing consensus suggests that more exercise may be needed to enhance long-term weight loss.

To calculate the amount of exercise needed, John M. Jakicic, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, and colleagues enrolled 201 overweight and obese women in a weight loss intervention between 1999 and 2003. All the women were told to eat between 1,200 and 1,500 calories per day. They were then assigned to one of four groups based on physical activity amount, burning 1,000 calories vs. 2,000 calories per week, and intensity. Group meetings focusing on strategies for modifying eating and exercise habits, as well telephone calls with the intervention team, also were conducted over the two-year period.

After six months, women in all four groups had lost an average of 8 percent to 10 percent of their initial body weight. However, most were not able to sustain this weight loss. After two years the women's weight was an average of 5 percent lower than their initial weight, with no difference between groups.

The 24.6 percent of individuals who did maintain a loss of 10 percent or more over two years reported performing more physical activity than those who lost less weight. They also completed more telephone calls with the intervention team, engaged in more eating behaviors recommended for weight control and had a lower intake of dietary fat.

"This clarifies the amount of physical activity that should be targeted for achieving and sustaining this magnitude of weight loss, but also demonstrates the difficulty of sustaining this level of physical activity," the authors wrote. "Research is needed to improve long-term compliance with this targeted level of physical activity. Moreover, continued contact with the intervention staff and the ability to sustain recommended eating behaviors also may be important contributing factors to maintaining a significant weight loss that exceeds 10 percent of initial body weight, which suggests that physical activity does not function independently of these other behaviors.

Most adults in the U.S. will be overweight or obese by 2030, with related health care spending projected to be as much as $956.9 billion, according to rese...

New Guide Lists Calories in Beer, Wine, Cocktails

Government doesn't require listings on drink labels

Want to know how many calories you're consuming when you drink a couple of glasses or wine or a cocktail or two before dinner? Sorry, the government doesn't require that kind of information to be displayed on the label.

But the Consumer Federation of America says consumers who drink alcohol should have that information. It's assembled Alcohol Facts, a side-by-side comparison of the alcohol, calorie and carbohydrate content per serving of the 26 top selling domestic and imported alcohol brands.

Designed to help consumers follow the advice that men limit their consumption to two drinks a day and that women restrict their consumption to one drink per day, Alcohol Facts further explains what constitutes a "standard drink" -- 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine and 1.5 ounces of 80-proof (40%) distilled spirits.

According to the government's dietary guidelines, these amounts represent moderate drinking. Public health officials warn that consuming too much alcohol contributes to dependence, obesity and a range of diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

"Right now, consumers really have no way of knowing the most basic information about alcoholic beverages," said Chris Waldrop, Director of the Food Policy Institute at the Consumer Federation of America. "It's time to end the confusion so consumers can make informed and responsible purchasing and consumption decisions. We're making information available today on some of the top selling brands, but the federal government needs to require standardized and complete alcohol labeling on all alcoholic beverages."

Based on liquor industry sales data compiled by Adams Beverage Group, CFA's analysis focused on 26 top-selling alcohol brands, comprising 13 beers and flavored malt beverages, 8 spirits products (vodka, rum, whiskey, gin and tequila), and 5 brands of wine.

Using the standard serving size for each category, CFA found the alcohol per serving ranged from 0.42 fluid ounces to 0.70 fluid ounces depending upon the specific brand and type of alcoholic beverage. In contrast, calorie and carbohydrate content varied significantly among the categories and bands as follows:

• Among spirits, calories per serving ranged from 86 calories for spiced rum to 120 calories for gin. The average (not including mixers) was 98 calories per serving;

• For wines, calories per serving ranged from 105 calories for a merlot to 125 calories for a cabernet sauvignon. The average was 118 calories per serving;

• The greatest variation in calories occurred among beers and flavored malt beverages. Light beers (5 brands) averaged 100 calories per serving, regular beers averaged 140 calories (5 brands) per serving, and the flavored malt beverages (3 brands) ranged from 190 calories per serving to 241 calories per serving;

• Variations were greatest when analyzing carbohydrate levels. Compared to no carbohydrates in spirits, wines ranged from 0.8 grams per serving for chardonnay to 5.0 grams per serving for cabernet sauvignon. Among different beers and malt beverages, carbohydrates ranged from 3.2 grams per serving for light beer to 38 grams per serving for a flavored malt beverage.

"Consumers should not have to search out information on website pages to figure out what is in their drink," Waldrop said. "The fact that this information wasn't readily available underscores why Americans need the same helpful and easily accessible labeling information on alcoholic beverages that is now required for conventional foods, dietary supplements, and nonprescription drugs."

Alcohol Facts further explains what constitutes a "standard drink" -- 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine and 1.5 ounces of 80-proof (40%) distille...

Fewer Americans on Diets but More 'Eating Healthily'

Consumers seeking out 'better-for-you' foods

Fewer of us are dieting to lose weight these days but more of us say we're eating a healthier diet. So says a new report from NPD Group, a retail research organization.

NPD's National Eating Trends report found that the percentage of adults on a diet has decreased by 10 percentage points since 1990, while the number of Americans eating healthier has increased.

NPD found that at least once in a two-week period, more than 70% of Americans are consuming reduced-fat foods, and over half of them are eating reduced-calorie, whole-grain or fortified foods. In addition to these foods, other better-for-you items consumed include diet, light, reduced-cholesterol, reduced-sodium, caffeine-free, sugar-free, fortified, organic and low-carb foods.

Awareness of these nutritional food elements continues to grow. For example, in 2005, 36 percent of consumers surveyed said they were trying to get more omega-3 fatty acids in their diets, and the most recent NPD Dieting Monitor shows that number increasing to 46 percent.

The average American, according to National Eating Trends, has at least two better-for-you products a day.

Healthy eating to consumers today tends to boil down to basic mathematics, says NPD vice president Harry Balzer, who has been tracking consumers food consumption behavior for 30 years.

A generation ago it was about subtracting bad things from your diet, but today healthy eating is more a matter of addition and subtraction, he says.

The ongoing concern about health appears to be paying off, according to Balzer. Recent U.S. government studies confirm obesity leveling off, and most recently, childhood obesity stabilizing.

Even with concerns about the economic downturn, eating healthy still remains top-of-mind with consumers. According to a recent NPD Fast Check Survey on economic conditions, adults who identify themselves as financially worse-off compared to last year, said that eating healthy still had the greatest impact on the food and beverages their household selects. Saving money ranked a close second.

While dieting for both women and men remain huge markets, they are not growing markets, said Harry Balzer, vice president, the NPD Group, in a statement. The desire to lose weight really was a 90s trend. Today consumers appear to be making healthier food choices.

Fewer Americans on Diets but More 'Eating Healthily'...

Fruits & Vegetables Offer Protection Against Sunburn

Lycopene, carotenoids may also prevent many cancers and skin diseases

If you're planning to spend time in the sun this summer, it may be a good idea to add lots of salads to your diet.

Research finds that tomatoes, green peppers, carrots and spring onions can all offer protection against a wide variety of cancers as well as protecting against sunburn and prematurely aging skin.

Many fruits and vegetables are rich in lycopene or carotenoids, and both can provide some important health benefits.

Carotenoids are the dark yellow and red micronutrients that give many fruits and vegetables their color. They protect against inflammation, skin aging, photosensitivity and some skin cancers. The carotenoids in tomatoes, peppers and pomegranates are widely distributed in the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin after they're digested.

In the skin they help to absorb the light, act as antioxidants and have an anti-inflammatory response to sunburn. They act by increasing the circulation of the blood to the skin and thus its nutrition. The better skin nutrition the less its scaliness and roughness, and more improved its thickness and hydration.

The effect of nutrition on skin health was among the topics at last week's First International Congress on Nutrition and Cancer, held in Turkey.

The study of nutrition is expanding from strictly dietary concerns to a broader focus on food scientists, as researchers find evidence that diets common in the Far East and Mediterranean countries have important health benefits over those common in the West.

Beyond describing the effects, scientists are increasingly able to explain the biochemical mechanism and demonstrate how the micronutrients in the diet can interfere with the body's cellular pathways to help to prevent cancer.

Before discussing the complex cellular pathways that determine how diet is involved in between one and two thirds of cancers, Professor Walter Willett of Harvard outlined the changes to lifestyle that help to reduce their incidence. He advised that everyone should exercise more, lose weight and increase the intake of fruit and vegetables, The Times of London reported.

Willett suggested that this would be especially useful in reducing cancers of the head and neck, such as those of the mouth, throat and esophagus as well as those of the gastrointestinal tract and, above all, prostate, breast and ovaries.

Willett recommends eating apples, as fresh as possible, every day and tomatoes -- the star food of the conference -- as well as onions and garlic. Pomegranate juice also gets his highest rating.

To keep the lower gastrointestinal tract healthy, Willett recommended a selection of fruit and vegetables to maintain adequate levels of beta carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E, as well as folic acid.

Lycopene, a powerful antioxidant, received universal approval from researchers speaking at the conference.

When lycopene is extracted from tomatoes, rather than from other substances, it contains two other naturally occurring carotenoids. These provide the necessary synergistic reaction that has an influence on a large number of other cancers, including, importantly, prostate and breast cancer.

By the way, lycopene is more available in cooked tomatoes than in raw ones, so nutritionists say we shouldn't be afraid to put an extra dab of red sauce on the pasta. Tomato juice is also beneficial.

Fruits & Vegetables Offer Protection Against Sunburn...

Eating Disorders Widespread Among U.S. Women, Survey Finds

Three-quarters of women display unhealthy thoughts or behaviors

Sixty-five percent of American women between the ages of 25 and 45 report having disordered eating behaviors, according to the results of a new survey. The survey was conducted by researchers at the University of North Carolina, in partnership with Self Magazine.

An additional 10 percent of women report symptoms consistent with eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, meaning that a total of 75 percent of all American women endorse some unhealthy thoughts, feelings or behaviors related to food or their bodies.

"Our survey found that these behaviors cut across racial and ethnic lines and are not limited to any one group," said Cynthia R. Bulik, Ph.D., William and Jeanne Jordan Distinguished Professor of Eating Disorders in the UNC School of Medicine's department of psychiatry and director of the UNC Eating Disorders Program.

"Women who identified their ethnic backgrounds as Hispanic or Latina, white, black or African American and Asian were all represented among the women who reported unhealthy eating behaviors."

"What we found most surprising was the unexpectedly high number of women who engage in unhealthy purging activities," said Bulik, who is also a nutrition professor in the School of Public Health.

"More than 31 percent of women in the survey reported that in an attempt to lose weight they had induced vomiting or had taken laxatives, diuretics or diet pills at some point in their life. Among these women, more than 50 percent engaged in purging activities at least a few times a week and many did so every day."

Although the type of disordered eating behaviors the survey uncovered don't necessarily have potentially lethal consequences like anorexia or bulimia nervosa, women report they are associated with emotional and physical distress. And despite the stereotype that eating issues affect mostly young women, the survey found that those in their 30s and 40s report disordered eating at virtually the same rates.

Findings show that:

• 75 percent of women report disordered eating behaviors or symptoms consistent with eating disorders; so three out of four have an unhealthy relationship with food or their bodies

• 67 percent of women (excluding those with actual eating disorders) are trying to lose weight

• 53 percent of dieters are already at a healthy weight and are still trying to lose weight

• 39 percent of women say concerns about what they eat or weigh interfere with their happiness

• 37 percent regularly skip meals to try to lose weight

• 27 percent would be "extremely upset" if they gained just five pounds

• 26 percent cut out entire food groups

• 16 percent have dieted on 1,000 calories a day or fewer

• 13 percent smoke to lose weight

• 12 percent often eat when they're not hungry; 49 percent sometimes do.

Eating habits that women think are normal such as banishing carbohydrates, skipping meals and in some cases extreme dieting may actually be symptoms of disordered eating, researchers say.

The online survey garnered responses from 4,023 women who answered detailed questions about their eating habits.

Eating Disorders Widespread Among U.S. Women, Survey Finds...

Doctor Offers Antidote To 'Super-Size Me' Diet

Organ damage can be reversed if consumers give up their unhealthy lifestyle

Obesity is just one of the problems resulting from a diet heavy on fast food. A recent study from Europe showed that eating too much fast food a diet high in fat and sugar can cause serious damage to your liver.

But is the damage permanent? Apparently not, says a leading liver specialist at Saint Louis University, who says people who give up their unhealthy lifestyle can actually reverse organ damage.

"There's strong evidence now that a fast-food type of diet high in fat and sugar, the kind of diet many Americans subsist on can cause significant damage to your liver and have extremely serious consequences for your health," said Brent Tetri, M.D., professor of internal medicine at the Saint Louis University Liver Center and one of the country's leading experts on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

"The good news is that most people can undo this damage if they change their diet and they keep physically active," Tetri said. "If they don't, however, they are asking for trouble."

Particularly alarming, says Tetri, is that physicians are starting to see children and teenagers with cirrhosis, a serious liver disease once seen mostly in adults with a history of alcohol abuse or hepatitis C. Tetri suspects this is because many kids today eat far too much fast food or junk food and get far too little exercise the kind of behaviors that can lead to liver damage.

"The fact we're starting to see kids with liver disease should really be a wake-up call for anyone eating a diet high in fat and sugar and who's not physically active," Tetri said.

Tetri last year studied the effects on mice of a diet that mimicked a typical fast-food meal. The diet was 40 percent fat and replete with high-fructose corn syrup, a sweetener common in soda and some fruit juices. The mice were also kept sedentary, mimicking the lifestyle of millions of Americans.

The result: Within four weeks, the mice displayed an increase in liver enzymes a key indicator of liver damage and the beginnings of glucose intolerance, a marker for type II diabetes.

Similarly, in February researchers in Sweden published the results of a study in which 18 healthy and slim adults ate fast food and restricted their physical activity for a month. The result: an average weight gain of 12 pounds and, within as little as a week, a sharp rise in liver enzymes.

Tetri is quick to emphasize that fast food per se doesn't causes liver damage. Rather, he says, the harm comes from eating too many calories and too much fat and sugar which happens with a steady diet of burgers, fries, sodas and most other items on the typical fast-food menu.

"The big issue here is caloric content," says Tetri. "You can put away 2,000 calories in a single fast-food meal pretty easily. For most people, that's more calories than they need in an entire day."

For adults and children who've repeatedly indulged in fast food, Tetri urges four key steps to help reverse the damage they've done to their liver.

1. Limit yourself to no more than one fast-food meal a week. For some people, that's going to be a major downshift. But for the sake of your health, a visit to a fast-food restaurant should be considered a treat not a regular event.

2. When you do eat fast food, eat as healthfully as possible. Try the burger without mayo and cheese, and avoid fries and sugary soft drinks. Better yet, go for a grilled chicken sandwich, a salad with a lower-fat dressing and bottled water or a diet soft drink.

3. Get active. If you don't already exercise at least three times a week, start now. Regular exercise helps keep your weight down and helps your body better metabolize and process the food you eat.

4. Ask your doctor to do a blood test to check your level of liver enzymes, a key measure of the health of your liver. Many doctors now order test this routinely when doing blood work on adults, but kids who eat a lot of fast food especially need to have their liver enzymes checked.

"Even for those people with the worst kind of diets, it's not too late to start exercising and eating right," Tetri said.

"Good news is that most people can undo this damage if they change their diet and they keep physically active," Tetri said. "If they don't, however, they a...

Weight Loss Found Effective in Reducing Blood Pressure

Study also finds orlistat helps relieve hypertension

You may be able to lower your blood pressure by doing something as simple as taking off a few pounds or using the medication orlistat.

Thats the conclusion drawn from a meta-analysis of previously published studies reported in the March 24 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine.

High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is responsible for approximately 7 million deaths worldwide each year. Lowering blood pressure levels in those with hypertension has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk, with corresponding decreases in illness and death.

Weight reduction is recommended in major guidelines as an initial intervention in the treatment of hypertensive patients, the authors of the study write. Among the possible means of reducing body weight are lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic and invasive interventions.

Researchers from the Medical University of Graz, Austria, performed a meta-analysis of 48 articles that were published before March 2007 and analyzed weight-loss interventions for patients with hypertension.

Of those studies, 38 assessed diet and 10 focused on medications for weight loss, including five evaluating orlistat and five assessing sibutramine. No relevant articles were located regarding the weight loss drug rimonabant or evaluating surgical weight reduction.

Patients assigned to weight loss diets, orlistat or sibutramine reduced their body weight more effectively than did patients in the usual care/placebo groups, the authors write. Reduction of blood pressure was higher in patients treated with weight loss diets or orlistat. Sibutramine treatment, however, did not lower overall blood pressure and appeared to increase systolic (top number) blood pressure.

A reduction in body weight of approximately 8.8 pounds was necessary to achieve a reduction of approximately 6 milligrams of mercury in systolic blood pressure with dietary treatment and of approximately 2.5 milligrams of mercury with orlistat, the authors write. None of the studies provided data to answer the question whether risk of mortality [death] or other patient-relevant end points can be lowered by weight reduction.

Weight Loss Found Effective in Reducing Blood Pressure...

Obesity A More Costly Workplace Health Issue Than Smoking

Workers' weight problems cost companies billions

Obesity not only takes its toll on health, it also has an impact on a company's bottom line. A new report by The Conference Board, a business research group, finds that obese employees cost U.S. private employers an estimated $45 billion annually in medical expenditures and work loss.

The report examines the financial and ethical questions surrounding whether, and how, U.S. companies should address the obesity epidemic.

"Employers need to realize that obesity is not solely a health and wellness issue," said Labor Economist Linda Barrington, Research Director of The Conference Board Management Excellence Program and co-author of the report.

"Employees' obesity-related health problems in the United States are costing companies billions of dollars each year in medical coverage and absenteeism. Employers need to pay attention to their workers' weights, for the good of the bottom line, as well as the good of the employees and of society," she said.

Among the report's findings:

• Obesity is associated with a 36-percent increase in spending on healthcare services, more than smoking or problem drinking. More than 40 percent of U.S. companies have implemented obesity-reduction programs, and 24 percent more said they plan to do so in 2008.

• Estimates of ROI for wellness programs range from zero to $5 per $1 invested. ROI aside, these programs may give companies an edge in recruiting and retaining desirable employees. Meanwhile, some say it may be more effective just to award employees cash and prizes for weight loss rather than devote resources to long-term wellness programs.

• Employers need to weigh the risks of being too intrusive in managing obese employees against the risks of not managing them. There is evidence that as weight goes up, wages go down. Employers should be fully aware of any potential discrimination risk before addressing employees' weight, whether for the employee's own good or that of the company.

• The jury is still out on the costs and benefits of paying for employees' weight-loss surgeries. While obese employees medically eligible for bariatric surgery (about 9 percent of the workforce) have sharply higher obesity-related medical costs and absenteeism, some say companies are unlikely to recoup surgery costs before these employees have left for other jobs.

• How employers communicate a wellness or weight-loss program is as important as how they design it. Companies should involve employees in planning health initiatives, rather than working from the top-down, and should make sure personal privacy is protected.

The report includes three case studies: Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG), a large self-insured utility with high BMI and low turnover, targets obesity as a major plank in its multifaceted wellness initiatives.

H-E-B, a Texas-based retail chain, believes retail's high turnover can make it all the more important to catch employees, from checkout clerks to executives, under the wellness umbrella. And Aetna Inc. says that adding incentives increased participation in its wellness programs and produced major savings.

Obesity A More Costly Workplace Health Issue Than Smoking...

Skipping Breakfast May Lead to Obesity

Study finds breakfast skippers more likely to be overweight

Your mother always told you to eat a good breakfast. Maybe there's something to that.

Researchers at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health have found further evidence to support the importance of encouraging young people to eat breakfast regularly. They found that kids who ate breakfast on a regular basis were less likely than their peers to be overweight.

The study examined the association between breakfast frequency and five-year body weight change in more than 2,200 adolescents, and the results indicate that daily breakfast eaters consumed a healthier diet and were more physically active than breakfast skippers during adolescence.

Five years later, the daily breakfast eaters also tended to gain less weight and have lower body mass index levels an indicator of obesity risk compared with those who had skipped breakfast as adolescents.

Mark Pereira, Ph.D., corresponding author on the study, points out that this study extends the literature on the topic of breakfast habits and obesity risk because of the size and duration of the study.

"The dose-response findings between breakfast frequency and obesity risk, even after taking into account physical activity and other dietary factors, suggests that eating breakfast may have important effects on overall diet and obesity risk, but experimental studies are needed to confirm these observations," Pereira said.

Over the past two decades, rates of obesity have doubled in children and nearly tripled in adolescents. Fifty-seven percent of adolescent females and 33 percent of males frequently use unhealthy weight-control behaviors, and it is estimated that between 12 and 24 percent of children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast.

This percentage of breakfast skippers, while alarming, has been found to increase with age, the researchers said.

"Although adolescents may think that skipping breakfast seems like a good way to save on calories, findings suggest the opposite," said Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Ph.D., principal investigator of Project EAT.

"Eating a healthy breakfast may help adolescents avoid overeating later in the day and disrupt unhealthy eating patterns, such as not eating early in the day and eating a lot late in the evening."

Researchers at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health have found further evidence to support the importance of encouraging young people to eat...

Artificial Sweeteners Linked to Weight Gain

Cutting the connection between sweets and calories may confuse the body

Want to lose weight? It might help to pour that diet soft drink down the drain.

A study appearing in the February issue of Behavioral Neuroscience cites laboratory evidence that the widespread use of no-calorie sweeteners may actually make it harder for people to control their intake and body weight.

Psychologists at Purdue Universitys Ingestive Behavior Research Center reported that compared with rats that ate yogurt sweetened with sugar, those given yogurt sweetened with zero-calorie saccharin later consumed more calories, gained more weight, put on more body fat, and didnt make up for it by cutting back later.

Authors Susan Swithers, PhD, and Terry Davidson, PhD, theorize that by breaking the connection between a sweet sensation and high-calorie food, the use of saccharin changes the bodys ability to regulate intake. That change depends on experience.

Problems with self-regulation might explain in part why obesity has risen in parallel with the use of artificial sweeteners. It also might explain why, says Swithers, scientific consensus on human use of artificial sweeteners is inconclusive, with various studies finding evidence of weight loss, weight gain or little effect.

Because people may have different experiences with artificial and natural sweeteners, human studies that dont take into account prior consumption may produce a variety of outcomes.

Three different experiments explored whether saccharin changed lab animals ability to regulate their intake, using different assessments -- the most obvious being caloric intake, weight gain, and compensating by cutting back.

Body temperature

The experimenters also measured changes in core body temperature, a physiological assessment.

Normally when we prepare to eat, the metabolic engine revs up. However, rats that had been trained to respond using saccharin (which broke the link between sweetness and calories), relative to rats trained on glucose, showed a smaller rise in core body temperate after eating a novel, sweet-tasting, high-calorie meal. The authors think this blunted response both led to overeating and made it harder to burn off sweet-tasting calories.

The data clearly indicate that consuming a food sweetened with no-calorie saccharin can lead to greater body-weight gain and adiposity (fat) than would consuming the same food sweetened with a higher-calorie sugar, the authors wrote.

The authors acknowledge that this outcome may seem counterintuitive and might not come as welcome news to human clinical researchers and health-care practitioners, who have long recommended low- or no-calorie sweeteners. Whats more, the data come from rats, not humans.

However, they noted that their findings match emerging evidence that people who drink more diet drinks are at higher risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome, a collection of medical problems such as abdominal fat, high blood pressure and insulin resistance that put people at risk for heart disease and diabetes.

But why?

Why would a sugar substitute backfire?

Swithers and Davidson wrote that sweet foods provide a salient orosensory stimulus that strongly predicts someone is about to take in a lot of calories. Ingestive and digestive reflexes gear up for that intake but when false sweetness isnt followed by lots of calories, the system gets confused. Thus, people may eat more or expend less energy than they otherwise would.

The good news, Swithers says, is that people can still count calories to regulate intake and body weight. However, she sympathizes with the dieters lament that counting calories requires more conscious effort than consuming low-calorie foods.

Swithers adds that based on the labs hypothesis, other artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, sucralose and acesulfame K, which also taste sweet but do not predict the delivery of calories, could have similar effects.

Finally, although the results are consistent with the idea that humans would show similar effects, human study is required for further demonstration.

A study of Behavioral Neuroscience cites laboratory evidence that widespread use of no-calorie sweeteners may make it harder for people to control their in...

U.S. Diet Dishes Up Diabetes

Burgers, fries, soft drinks lead to metabolic syndrome

Otherwise-healthy adults who eat two or more servings of meat a day -- the equivalent of two burger patties -- increase their risk of developing metabolic syndrome by 25 percent compared with those who eat meat twice a week, according to research published in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk factors including elevated waist circumference, high blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or good) cholesterol and high fasting glucose levels.

The presence of three or more of the factors increases a persons risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

But its not just meat that adds inches to the waist, increases blood pressure and lowers HDL -- its fried foods as well, said Lyn M. Steffen, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.D., co-author of the study and an associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Minnesota.

Dairy products, by contrast, appeared to offer some protection against metabolic syndrome.

Fried foods are typically synonymous with commonly eaten fast foods, so I think it is safe to say that these findings support a link between fast-food consumption and an increase in metabolic risk factors, said Steffen.

The findings come from an analysis of dietary intake by 9,514 people in the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study, funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Real food, real people

Unlike other researchers who have investigated relationships between nutrients and cardiovascular risk, we specifically studied food intake. When making recommendations about dietary intake it is easier to do so using the framework of real foods eaten by real people, Steffen said.

Researchers assessed food intake using a 66-item food frequency questionnaire. From those responses, they categorized people by their dietary preferences into a Western-pattern diet or a prudent-pattern diet.

In general, the Western-pattern diet was heavy on refined grains, processed meat, fried foods, red meat, eggs and soda, and light on fish, fruit, vegetables and whole grain products.

Prudent diet eating patterns, by contrast, favored cruciferous vegetables , things like cabbage, radish and broccoli, carotenoid vegetables -- carrots, pumpkins, red pepper, cabbage, broccoli and spinach -- fruit, fish and seafood, poultry and whole grains, along with low-fat dairy.

Researchers also assessed associations with individual food items: fried foods, sweetened beverages, diet soft drinks, nuts and coffee.

Nine years

After nine years of follow-up, nearly 40 percent of the participants had three or more of the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

At baseline, participants were 45 to 64 years old -- ages at which many people gain weight.

Steffen said weight gain over the years of follow-up might explain some of the cases of metabolic syndrome. But after adjusting for demographic factors, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, consumption of a Western dietary pattern was adversely associated with metabolic syndrome, she said.

One surprising finding was while it didnt increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, there was no evidence of a beneficial effect of consuming a prudent diet either. I had expected to find a beneficial effect because we have seen that in other studies, Steffen added.

Dairy products beneficial

When researchers analyzed the results by specific foods, they found that meat, fried foods and diet soda pop all were significantly associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome, but consumption of dairy products was beneficial.

The study did not address the mechanisms involved in the increased risk of metabolic syndrome seen with certain foods, but Steffen speculated that it may be a fatty acid mechanism since saturated fats are a common link and certainly overweight and obesity are contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome.

She also said more research on the relationship between diet soda and its association to metabolic syndrome is needed.

The fact that 60.5 percent of the ARIC population had metabolic syndrome at the start of the study or developed it during nine years of follow-up is troubling, researchers said.

Steffen said the studys results are clear: Too much meat, fried foods and diet soda, do not add up to a healthy life.


American Heart Association dietary guidelines for healthy Americans age 2 and older include:

• Limit saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and sodium in the diet.

• Minimize the intake of food and beverages with added sugars.

• Eat a diet rich in vegetables, fruits and whole-grain foods.

• Select fat-free and low-fat dairy.

• Eat fish at least twice per week.

• Emphasize physical activity and weight control.

• Avoid use of and exposure to tobacco products.

• Achieve and maintain healthy cholesterol, blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

U.S. Diet Dishes Up Diabetes...

'Slim Coffee' Promoters Settle False Advertising Charges

Weight-loss claims bogus, feds charged

The marketers of Slim Coffee -- an instant coffee product purportedly containing hoodia -- have agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that their advertising falsely claimed that their product would enable its users to lose significant amounts of weight without diet or exercise.

Diet Coffee, Inc. and its principals, David Stocknoff and David Attarian, based in New York City, ran television ads claiming that drinking Slim Coffee had been clinically proven to cause weight loss of up to 5 pounds a week and up to 20 pounds a month.

Theres no need to change your eating habits or what you eat, the ads claimed. Just replace your coffee with Slim Coffee and you will start to see results. Its that easy and all-natural.

According to a complaint filed by the FTC in federal district court, the weight-loss claims for Slim Coffee were false and unsupported by any reliable scientific studies, in violation of the FTC Act.

Among other things, the FTCs complaint alleged that neither Slim Coffee nor any of its individual ingredients, including hoodia, would enable its users to lose as much as two to five pounds per week, without reducing caloric intake or increasing physical activity.

Under the proposed settlement, Diet Coffee, Inc. and its principals are prohibited from claiming that any product enables users to lose substantial weight without reducing caloric intake or increasing physical activity.

The order also prohibits them from representing that any product or service causes weight loss, causes users to lose any specified amount of weight, reduces or eliminates fat, reduces or curbs appetite, or increases metabolism, or making any other health-related benefit or efficacy representation unless it is true, not misleading, and substantiated by reliable scientific evidence.

In addition, they are prohibited from misrepresenting the existence, contents, validity, results, conclusions, or interpretations of any test or study concerning such products.

Slim Coffee was advertised on the Internet, radio, and television, including on Oxygen, Fox Reality Channel, A&E Television, The CW, WE, and Bravo. Ads also have appeared in magazines and Sunday newspaper supplements, including SmartSource by News America Marketing FSI, Inc.

More Scam Alerts ...

'Slim Coffee' Promoters Settle False Advertising Charges...

Feds: Fraud Hit 13% of U.S. Adults

30 million U.S. fraud complaints last year

October 30, 2007
The latest Federal Trade Commission statistical survey of fraud in the United States shows that 30.2 million adults -- 13.5 percent of the adult population -- were victims of fraud during the year studied.

More people -- an estimated 4.8 million U.S. consumers -- were victims of fraudulent weight-loss products than any of the other frauds covered by the survey.

Fraudulent foreign lottery offers and buyers club memberships tied for second place in the survey. Lottery scams occur when consumers are told they have won a foreign lottery that they had not entered. Victims supplied either personal information such as their bank account numbers or paid money to receive their winnings.

In the case of buyers clubs, victims are billed for a membership they had not agreed to buy. An estimated 3.2 million people were victims of these frauds during the period studied.

Fraudulent prize promotion schemes ranked fourth in the fraud survey, with an estimated 2.7 million victims reporting making a purchase, a payment, or attending a sales presentation to receive a prize that either was never delivered or was not what the consumer expected.

Work-at-home programs, in which the purchaser earned less than half of the income the seller had promised, ranked fifth among the fraudulent schemes covered by the survey. An estimated 2.4 million individuals fell victim to these schemes, and many purchased more than one fraudulent work-at-home program.

Twenty percent of blacks and 18 percent of Hispanics