Many cooks prefer using a gas stove and gas is often cheaper than electricity but a new study finds a potentially big downside to cooking with gas -- a higher rate of asthma and bronchitis in homes where gas stoves are used without adequate ventilation.
“In homes where a gas stove was used without venting, the prevalence of asthma and wheezing is higher than in homes where a gas stove was used with ventilation,” said Ellen Smit, an associate professor Oregon State University and one of the study’s authors. “Parents of all children should use ventilation while using a gas stove.”
Researchers can’t say that gas stove use without ventilation causes respiratory issues, but the new study clearly shows an association between having asthma and use of ventilation, Smit said. More study is needed to understand that relationship.
Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease and an estimated 48% of American homes have a gas stove. Gas stoves are known to affect indoor air pollution levels and researchers wanted to better understand the links between air pollution from gas stoves, parents’ behavior when operating gas stoves and respiratory issues, said Eric Coker, a doctoral student in public health and a co-author of the study.
The study showed that children who lived in homes where ventilation such as an exhaust fan was used when cooking with gas stoves were 32% less likely to have asthma than children who lived in homes where ventilation was not used. Children in homes where ventilation was used while cooking with a gas stove were 38% less likely to have bronchitis and 39% less likely to have wheezing.
The study also showed that lung function, an important biological marker of asthma, was significantly better among girls from homes that used ventilation when operating their gas stove.
Used for heating
Many people in the study also reported using their gas stoves for heating, researchers found. That was also related to poorer respiratory health in children, particularly when ventilation was not used. In homes where the gas kitchen stove was used for heating, children were 44% less likely to have asthma and 43% less likely to have bronchitis if ventilation was used.
The results did not change even when asthma risk factors such as pets or cigarette smoking inside the home were taken into account, Coker said.
The findings were published recently in the journal Environmental Health. Researchers used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics from 1988-1994. Data collected for NHANES is a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population.
Even though the study relies on older data, the findings remain relevant because many people still use gas stoves for cooking, and in some cases, for heat in the winter, the researchers said.
“Lots of older homes lack exhaust or other ventilation,” Coker said. “We know this is still a problem. We don’t know if it is as prevalent as it was when the data was collected.”
“More research is definitely needed,” Coker said. “But we know using an effective ventilation system will reduce air pollution levels in a home, so we can definitely recommend that.”